Love... kept safely in a box
Date of Issue : 27 January 2017
Slovenia Post issued a greeting stamp for this year’s Valentine’s Day featuring miniature painted chest.
Dehradun February 2017 Vol. X No. 110
Readers are requested to send reports of philatelic activities in their area for publication. Short write ups by the readers about their journals, societies, publications and philatelic requirements can be sent for inclusion in this bulletin to email@example.com .
Note- This bulletin is only for circulation among a limited group of philatelists without any commercial purpose. The bulletin will be sent to the readers only on request. Those who wish to receive it regularly please reply giving the name of your city / country with the subject SUBSCRIBE RAINBOW
I am pleased to release February 2017 issue of Rainbow Stamp News. It is the time of stamp exhibitions as many District Level and State Level stamp exhibitions are being held all over the country. Some International Stamp Exhibitions have also been announced. Some Readers have complained that they are not receiving proper response from the National Commissioners about the exhibitions. However, it is duty of every National Commissioner to provide complete information to those who intend to participate in the exhibition and respond to their mail.
Appraisal of National Commissioner
Further, a reader of Rainbow has suggested the appraisal system for NC by the participant. He suggests that a grading form for National Commissioner should be submitted by each participant to the Philatelic Congress of India related to his interaction with the commissioner to evaluate the performance of NC who attended a particular International exhibition. It is to be made compulsory evaluation by participant whose exhibits were carried by NC. PCI should evaluate these grading and publish performance rank of each NC. Non compliance by a participant may disqualify for next international automatically. The form should highlight points such as behavior, response, response time, time span for different activities, handling and carriage of exhibits, reporting by NC on exhibition, expenditures details etc. for which PCI may design the form with appropriate questionnaire. This will certainly bring revolution in NC appointment system and will encourage entry of new NC’s and withdrawal of inefficient, and incompetent NC’s from the existing panel. Further this will improve NC’s performance at different levels
This suggestion by the reader seems to be a nice idea which I believe should be implemented as soon as possible. The performance form should directly be submitted to PCI with in stipulated time after the receipt of exhibit and other items / information from the NC by the participant.
There are complaints from the participants about the organizers of some of recently held exhibitions. They do not return exhibits, certificates and refunds timely and do not reply to the mails inquiring about exhibits, certificates etc. It’s all very disappointing for the participants who spend lot of time,energy and money in exhibiting their exhibits. There must be a Grievances Cell in the PCI where exhibitors can send their complaints freely about the exhibitions.
This is all for this month.....More in next issue.
§ From the Desk of Naresh Agrawal
§ Recent Indian Issues
§ In The News
§ Doon Philatelic Diary
§ Beginners’ Section
§ Specialized Section
§ New Issues from Other Countries
§ Philatelic Clubs and Society
§ Blogs & Websites on Philately
§ Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletter
Philately depends upon one’s imagination, search and research on different subjects which is then transformed in to a collection and then in to an exhibit with the help of stamps and other philatelic material. Getting the material and completing the collection or exhibit is quite satisfying and is the goal of the whole process of philatelic collection and exhibiting.
Stamp dealers are the one who mainly provide the required philatelic material. I remember when I was a young stamp collector, apart from searching stamps from here and there, through pen pals and exchange; the main source was the stamp dealers who practically helped me in developing my collection by providing the required material regularly and giving appropriate required information. After so many years when philately has changed its dimensions, style and methodology, it has turned from 2G to 4.5 G ; my dependency is still on some of the stamp dealers who even today provide me the required material regularly. They are the one who search required material of my taste for me from their sources. Yes, auction and stamp sale sites on net and whats app groups have helped in a big way, yet importance of domestic and local dealers cannot be ruled out. The personal contacts with them certainly a regular and big help.
Of late, during BILASAPEX 2017 some of the dealers from Kolkata graced the show with their presence and gave an encouraging impact on the show. Stamp dealers for me are like sauce on snacks which adds to the taste & like jewels in crown which add to the beauty of the crown. I mean they are an essential part of philatelic show and otherwise back bone of philately as they are basically the material providers. They are feeders. They are true philatelic promoters as they provide basic material to the budding stamp lovers and specific specialized material to the serious, veteran and seasoned philatelists.
Well, during discussion with them, I found that they were not happy as they had a common complaint of not being recognized by the organizers of the philatelic shows. As per them, the treatment sometimes they received was pathetic. We must understand dealers spend so much of money in travelling, carriage of philatelic stuffs, their stay, food etc. apart from the precious time they give to the show on call from the organizers. Sometimes they are in big loss but they are always ready to serve philatelists. Some times during the travel they lose their precious stuffs but to whom to complain. Genuinely the stamp dealers deserve all appreciation and thanks for their valued contribution for the promotion of philately.
Some people sometimes complain about the dealers being costly. I differ from them in my opinion. Let us talk about small dealers who move from one show to the other and one place to the other. I feel we must also understand that they are professionals. They earn their bread and butter from the sale of philatelic stuffs only. Their net earning is their livelihood. So even if sometimes their prices seem to be little high they should be accepted as they serve you at your door steps.
In nut shell, I would request all the organizers that stamp dealers should be given proper recognition and honor. In BILASAPEX-2017, the attending dealers from Kolkata were duly honored by the Postal Department for their contribution to the show. They seemed satisfied and happy. And such practice should be sincerely adopted by all the philatelic wings of postal departments and all the philatelic societies and clubs. We must not forget stamp dealers are back bone of philately. It won’t be wrong if I say “Philately survives if stamp dealers survive” or “Philatelic Dealers survival is necessary for the survival of the philately”..
-Naresh Agrawal Ph. 09425530514
email ID : firstname.lastname@example.org
Recent Indian Issue
1 January 2017 – Splendors of India – 12 x Rs 25 + 1 MS Rs 300 + 12 MS of RS 25 each
5 January 2017 - Guru Gobind Singh 350th Prakash Utsav Rs 10 + MS
7January 2017 - India Portugal Joint Issue - Rs 5 = Rs 25 + MS
17 January 2017 M G Ramachandran-Rs 15
25 January 2017 - Nature – 6 x Rs 5 + MS
30 January 2017 – India Post Payments Bank – Rs 5
Recent Special Covers
19 January 2017 – Kalindi 2017 Jamia Millia Islamia , New Delhi
19 January 2017 – Kalindi 2017 Bahai Lotus Temple, New Delhi20 January 2017 – Kalindi 2017 Okhla Bird Sanctuary, New Delhi
27 January 2017 : RURAPEX 2017-:Agriculture is the best culture – Melur
27 January 2017: Rurapex 2017 - Nature is the best Teacher – Melur
27 January 2017 : International Customs Day – Bangalore
27 January 2017: 60th year of Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal
28 January2017 : Bilasapex 2017 :Kosa..The fabric of Chhattiasgarh., Bilaspur
29 January 2017 : Bilasapex 2017 Crocodile Park, Kotmi Sonar, Bilaspur
30.January.2017 : Bilasapex 2017 : Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan, Bilaspur
30 January 2017 : Ahmednagar Fort , Pune
30 January 2017: National Cleanliness Day – Bangalore
1 February 2017 : Sri Sharada Temple Swarna Gopura Kumbhabhisheka, Sringeri, Karnataka - 577 139
View : Special Covers
In The News
Israel’s International Year of Light stamp wins top design award
Israel’s International Year of Light stamp recently received the Nexofil award for the most beautiful stamp of 2015. The awards were presented Oct. 28, 2016 in Spain. A Swedish Ingrid Bergman stamp was the runner-up, and a Croatian stamp placed third.
The winners were determined by an international jury comprised of philatelists from more than 20 countries. Issued Feb. 10, 2015, the 11.80-shekel stamp from Israel commemorated both the International Year of Light and the 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry (Scott 2050).
According to information from the Israel Philatelic Service, the stamp design represents the Schrodinger equation on the left and the protein rhodopsin on the right. Shown on the attached tab, or label, are the emblem of the International Year of Light and representation of rods and cones, two types of light-sensitive cells in the human retina.
Sweden’s 14-krona Ingrid Bergman stamp issued Aug. 20, 2015, is part of a joint issue with the United States honoring the 100th birth anniversary of the actress (Sweden Scott 2756, United States 5012).
Both the Swedish and U.S. stamps were based on a photograph of Bergman taken by celebrity photographer Laszlo Willinger. The Swedish stamp was designed by Gustaf Martensson and engraved by Lars Sjooblom.
Martin Pingel, head of design at Postnord Stamps, described the design as “a simple, powerful depiction of one of the world’s most well-known actresses of the 20th century.”
The Croatian stamp, issued July 9, 2015 (Scott 964), was part of the multination Euromed series featuring boats of the Mediterranean.
The 5.80-kuna stamp pictures a cargo vessel known as a bracera. The stamp design by Dean Roksandie is based on a photograph by Ljubo Gamulin.
Israel won another first-place Nexofil award for best definitive stamp series for its Sept. 2, 2015, Rivers issue (Scott 2079-2084).
Spain also received two first-place awards, one for best engraved stamp (Scott 4048, Segovia UNESCO World Heritage Site) and best mixed printing (4038, Exfilna 2015, National Philatelic Exhibition, Aviles).
Other first-place awards were presented to stamps and souvenir sheets of Austria, Belgium, France, Liechtenstein, Portugal, South Korea and Uruguay.
Source : Linn’s Stamp News
Asiago International Award for Philatelic Art 2016
Royal Mail has won the Asiago International Award for Philatelic Art 2016, for the Innovative Britain set of 8 stamps. Often tagged in the media 'for the most beautiful stamps' the awards are considered the Oscars of Stamp Design and are awarded annually in Asiago Italy.
This year the jury included a stamp designer, journalist, philatelist and film critic. The awards are presented under the patronage of the President of Italy and Circolo filatelico Sette Comuni, the Seven Towns Philatelic Circle.
Portugal won the prize in the Ecology category, for four stamps, with a Polish stamp for World Blood Donation Day taking an award from the Italian Academy of Philately and Postal History. Spain received the award of the Palladian Axademy of Vicenze fo ra miniature sheet promoting Exfina, the Spanish national stamp exhibition.
African nation accidently uses trans woman’s image for Marilyn Monroe stamp
A transgender entertainer who is a dead-ringer for Marilyn Monroe is threatening legal action against the Central African Republic for issuing stamps using her image impersonating the late Hollywood star.
Jimmy James is described in the New York Post’s Page Six report as a renowned Monroe impersonator, who played her in a 1991 television commercial for an eyeglasses company. That’s the image that her attorney, Mark J. Heller, says was appropriated for the stamp.
The stamp is one in a series celebrating the curvaceous actress, who had absolutely no connection whatsoever to Africa. But images of celebrities, especially dead movie actors, are a popular stream of income for nations looking to profit on their fame.
Recent Stamp Exhibitions
Brasilia-2017 is a Specialized World Stamp Exhibition. The Exhibition will open on 24 October 2017 and close on 29 October 2017. An exhibitor whose entry has won at least a vermeil award at the National philatelic exhibitions, or have participated in an International philatelic exhibition and have won a medal may submit entry.
Mr Ajay Kumar Mittal is the National Commissioner. Interested philatelists may contact him at email : email@example.com
Following classes are available for participation.
Class 1 – FIP Championship Class - For exhibits that have been awarded three Large Gold medals, in three different years, at World Exhibitions held under FIP Patronage over the last ten years (2007-2016).
Class 2 - Traditional Philately (TP): A) Brazil. B) Americas (except Brazil). C) Europe. D) Asia, Oceania and Africa.
Class 3 - Postal History (PH): A) Brazil. B) Americas (except Brazil). C) Europe. D) Asia, Oceania and Africa.
Class 4 - Postal Stationery (PS).
Class 5 - Thematic Philately (TH) (*). Exhibits will be classified under: A)
Nature. B) Culture. C) Technology.
(*) Please, indicate clearly in the “Exhibit Application Form” as to the subclass (A, B or C) the exhibit is entering.
Class 6 - One Frame – TP, PH, PS, TH.
Class 7 - Modern Philately – TP, PH, PS, TH.
Class 8 - Youth Philately:
Age for Group A: 10-15 years old (As of January 1st, 2017).
Age for Group B: 16-18 years old (As of January 1st, 2017).
Age for Group C: 19-21 years old (As of January 1st, 2017).
Class 9 - Philatelic Literature:
A) Philatelic books and research papers (published on or after January 1st, 2012).
B) Philatelic magazines and periodicals (the whole annual volume issued after January 1st, 2015).
C) Catalogues (published after January 1st, 2015).
Article 9 – Participation Fee
9.1 There is no fee for Non-Competitive Class entries
9.2 The participation fee for Competitive Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 is US$ 60.00 per frame.
(An additional 50 Swiss Francs per frame for the FIP Championship Class shall be paid directly to FIP).
9.3 The participation fee for One-Frame Exhibit (Class 6) is US$ 75.00 per exhibit.
9.4 There is no fee for Youth Philately (Class 8).
9.5 The participation fee for Philatelic Literature (Class 9) is US$ 60.00 per exhibit.
BANDUNG 2017 Specialised WORLD STAMP EXHIBITION, 3-7 Aug 2017 Exhibition under FIP Patronage
Shri Sahdeva Sahoo is National Commissioner for this exhibition. emails : firstname.lastname@example.org & email@example.com Phones +91 9337103542
+91 674 2432251 (LL)
+91 674 2432251 (LL)
MELBOURNE 2017, 34th FIAP Asian International Stamp Exhibition will be held in Melbourne, Australia from 30 March to 2 April 2017.
Mr. Madhukar Jhingan is the Indian National Commissioner for the MELBOURNE 2017.
(M) +919811160965, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Three Day Distt Level Philatelic Exhibition was held in Bilaspur Chhattisgarh by Department of Post from 28th January 2017 to 30th January 2017 at premises of Sri Ram Mandir, Tilak Nagar, Bilaspur. As many as 42 entries were there in competitive Class in senior as well as Junior Classes. Mr Naresh Agrawal, a philatelist of international repute also displayed his award winning exhibits in various International and World stamp Shows in invitee class to grace the show alongwith his other nationally awarded exhibits. In senior category Mr Atul Jain’s exhibit on Hands and Fingers (Human) was adjudged the Best Exhibit in the show. Mr. C.R.Andhare acted as jury. The show was visited by several school children apart from regular visitors. Stamp Dealers from Kolkatta graced the show.
Following 3 nos. Special Covers and 4 nos. Stamp booklets were released during the show :
28.01.2017 Special Cover on Kosa..The fabric of Chhattiasgarh. The Stamp Booklet pertained to Sal and Mahua Trees of Achanakmar forest.
29.01.2017 Special Cover on Crocodile Park, Kotmi Sonar. The Stamp Booklets pertained to Kanan Pendari Zoo of Bilaspur and Birds of Achanakmar Tiger reserve
30.01..2017 Special Cover on Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan. The Stamp Booklet pertained to the visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Chhattisgarh during 1920
International quality steel frame were procured for the display of exhibits. Cultural program and quiz competitions were held. In all, the show was a great success. Local newspapers highlighted the show.
Gandhi Philatelic Exhibition at Pune
On 30 Jan 17 Gandhi Philatelic Exhibition was held at Pune GPO was inaugurated.
Exhibits of Ole-Fredrik Olsen, Ashok Bayanwala, Prashant Pandya, Dr Anjali Dutta, Col J Dutta, and Dept of Post, Pune were displayed. The chief guest was Smt Aparna Mohile former chief of the Censor Board who had certified the film Gandhi. The exhibition was on for two days.
Exhibits of Ole-Fredrik Olsen, Ashok Bayanwala, Prashant Pandya, Dr Anjali Dutta, Col J Dutta, and Dept of Post, Pune were displayed. The chief guest was Smt Aparna Mohile former chief of the Censor Board who had certified the film Gandhi. The exhibition was on for two days.
The special cover on Ahmednagar Fort was released. One special cover on forts of Pune Region will be released every month. School children came in large numbers which was very heartening. Col J Dutta spoke to the children on the theme and then took them around.
Interview with Aditya Asthana
1. We welcome you to the colorful spectrum of RAINBOW, a medium which has given colors to many stamp lovers. As usual we start with the basic question as to how you came in to the field of stamp collecting.
Long time back, probably in 1992, I was fascinated by the stickers which came free with different packs of the famous instant noodles “Maggi”. I collected them and I used to stick those colorful stickers on the door of our refrigerator.
One fine day, my father gifted me a window envelop with many beautiful stamps. It was a pack of 100 different stamps from various countries. He taught me the purpose of stamps and handed over two most precious gifts. One was a Reader’s Digest Special edition World Atlas published in 1965 and a stamp album. That’s how it all began.
Now, after so many years, I actually wonder that the motive behind those gifts might have been just my mother’s willingness for protecting her refrigerator.
2. Kanpur as we know has been a place where philately blossoms and spread its fragrance throughout. Many veteran, renowned philatelists hale from that place who are certain motivation and boost to many budding stamp lovers. Do you have interaction with some? Please tell us.
Kanpur has been a philatelic hub for more than hundred years. The city has seen many great philatelic societies, dealers and collectors. In my school days, I was mentored by Shri Arjun Ghosh who taught me the basics of stamp collecting. He was the driving force behind the Ghosh Enterprises, a famous name of 80s and 90s. In fact, the window envelope which my father gave; was bought from the popular Stamp and Book Corner which still exists and has been there since close to 30 years.
Over the years, Shri Ramesh Chandra Agarwal helped me in completing few of my country collections and when I entered competitive philately, Shri Arun Agarwal became my guide. He taught me the Principles of Postal History. Of course, my list cannot be called complete without mentioning the name of the networking agent of Kanpur, Shri Daksh Dev Shukla. He was been instrumental in providing some of the essential exhibiting material to me.
3. How you began your journey to the stamp collecting era,I mean collecting assorted stamps or country wise or theme wise?
My journey started with my full devoted measures of collecting whatever which came more in quantity,in less money. Whenever my father took me to Stamp and book corner, I used to pick up packets which had the maximum number of stamps of the largest size.My first focused attempt was to collect India used stamps which I managed to complete by the end of my schooling. I remember selling off my books after my Class 12th board exams and buying stamps out of it.
During college days, I started collecting Nepal, Germany, Ceylon and Bangladesh. I got hold of free album pages which I used for organizing these stamps. That was the time when I practiced hinging used stamps. I am yet to begin thematic philately.
4. When your serious journey to the philatelic field started. When exactly you felt that there was some need to get proper direction and then move ahead?
I would say that my serious philately began about 7 years back when I began studying and structurally organizing British Indian stamps. In parallel, I was working on 3 collections of India used on Album pages which I graded according to the condition of the stamps. After completing the run of India Used stamps, came the turn of switching to Mint and that of course required more money. With new job and a stable philatelic budget I started picking up the mints of 1960s. White gum& pristine condition were words which were the market jargons. I saved money and invested in India mint. Soon, I had to invest more money in its up keep and maintenance. The process was going slow and was turning boring as well. Finally in 2012, I decided to stop collecting India Mint. I realized that Indian mint stamps are something which could be obtained very easily anytime by throwing some money. There was no fun in collecting the easily available stuff. Many people would disagree with me on this.
In the winters of 2013, while chatting with Shri Arun Agarwal, I showed my disinterest in collecting India Mint and my argument was quite convincing to him. After a long thoughtful pause, he disappeared for short interval, and came back with a cover. A cover which was sent from Etawah to Cawnpore more than 150 years back. The cover was enticing as it was related to my city. That was time when the virus of postal history entered my life. I found that collecting postal history is exciting as each cover narrates its own story.
5. When did you turn from collecting stamps to exhibiting stamps? What do you feel about competitive philately?
Earlier I used to think that making exhibits is not my cup of tea as it required a lot study and exploration. But my perception changed in Kanpex 2013. For the first time I saw the details of the exhibiting practice. I decided to give it a try. Actually I realized that I was hesitant in entering competitive philately because I did not know where to start from, which books or journals to read and how to step by step transform my accumulations to an exhibit. Exhibiting indeed requires great deal of knowledge and study but the work becomes easier when you are told the correct path to follow. Competitive philately is great as it gives you certain goals in your philatelic life. But the intentions of hoarding medals is something which I dislike.
6. Tell us about your participations in stamp exhibitions and awards won?
Cawnpex 2015, a District Level Exhibition was my first participation. I had put a 2 frame exhibit. I was given a Sliver for my exhibit titled, “Postal History of Cawnpore”. Next was the Zonal Exhibition - Uttarpex 2015 which again gave me a Silver. I had expanded my exhibit to 5 frames by that time. After Uttarpex, I got a decent gap of one year wherein I worked on the write up and gathered better covers. I participated in the National level SIPA Diamond which was held in Chennai last year. I met a number of people there and I learnt a lot. I was awarded a Vermeil at SIPA.In the mid of December last year, a District Level Exhibition was again organized in Kanpur itself. I was awarded a Gold along with Best Exhibit Award.
7. It is truly interesting to know that you love Social Philately and also you exhibited in this class. Tell us about your exhibit and how you selected this class which normally is less appreciated in India at present. Please also let us know some features of the exhibit.
I turned to Social philately because while exhibiting my subject, I was not able to add the required flavor to my subject in terms of postage, path and postmark. I found this very class to be a way out as it allowed me to add certain non-philatelic items. I have used cigarette cards, stationery of industrial houses and printed rate lists of commissioning agents to showcase the historic events and industrialization of Cawnpore. The title of my exhibit in social history class is, “Manchester of the East”.
8. Now as you have experienced philately; a hobby, better than many, what do you suggest to the young generation when there are so many other digital attractions and less time available for recreation with them?
Nowadays digital attraction are pulling younger generation away from these legacy hobbies. But one thing I would like to highlight here is that with Philately as a hobby, children gain excellence in scholastic subjects as well. I would rather suggest that the parents are to be influenced first then only they will encourage their children to pursue this hobby.
When I was a kid, my father taught me how to refer to an atlas for locating a particular country on the map. This practice proved highly beneficial for me. I remember the excitement that I used to have whenever I was able to connect a historical event or personality to a particular stamp in my collection. I suggest young collector to look up google maps instead, to find out more details about the countries whose stamps you have collected. Google out the people and place depicted in the stamps you have.
Philately has the human connection, it includes discussions with people and exchange of thoughts which are very much required for the children of this digital age. The collection of these tangible bits of paper and the idea of caring about it adds values to the kid’s growth.
9. Which one is better Collecting or exhibiting?
I would say exhibiting is better. If you have it, flaunt it. But exhibiting comes after collecting. Collecting is an addiction, exhibiting is fun.
10. While wishing you the very best for the future we would like to know how you have planned to pursue this hobby ahead.
Thank you for the best wishes. Currently, I am looking forward to participate in National or international level events. I need to work more on my exhibit in social philately class. I also wish to start a thematic subject as well for which search is still on.
In parallel, I am working on my latest venture which is a website showcasing the postal history of my city. www.cawnpore.net
Mr Aditya Asthana can be contacted at email : email@example.com Ph. +91-95822-12130
: Interview by Naresh Agrawal
Doon Philatelic Diary
Oil & Natural Gas Corporation
Before Independence the oil production was carried out Assam Oil Company in the North East and Attock Oil Company in the North West region of undivided India. The role of oil and gas was emphasised after the Independence for industrial development. Until 1955 the oil exploration was mainly carried by the private companies. It was in 1955 that the Government of India decided that the oil exploration need to be put under the ambit of a public sector undertaking. Hence the Oil and Natural GAs Directorate was set up under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Scientific Research. Mr. KD Malviya, then Minister was largely responsible for framing the policy of oil exploration. In April 1956, the Government of India adopted the Industrial Policy Resolution, which placed mineral oil industry amongst the Schedule 'A' industries, the future development of which was to be the sole and exclusive responsibility of the state. In August 1956 the Directorate was raised to the status of commission and further in 1959 it was converted into a statutory body by an act of Parliament. ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Commission) was reorganized as a limited Company under the Company's Act, 1956 in February 1994 following the liberalised economic policy of 1991
Special cover issued in 1981 at Dehradun to commemorate the ONGC Silver Jubilee
ONGC, Dehradun HQ meter mark cancelling the stamp released on its 50 year
With its headquarter situated at Dehradun, the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is today the flag bearer of not only the Indian Petroleum Industry but also the entire Industrial sector of the country. The organization has emerged as one of the forerunners amongst the public and private sectors within a short span. ONGC occupies top slot amongst the public sector undertakings in terms of assets employed. Keeping in view ONGC's unique position in the Indian Industrial scenario, its role in the socioeconomic development of not only Dehradun but of the whole country assumes prime importance. It completed its 50 years in 2006.
- Abhai Mishra : email : firstname.lastname@example.org
NOT ONLY CHINESE NEW YEAR, CHINA MAP ITSELF LOOKS LIKE A ROOSTER
Chinese New Year 2017 - The Year of the Rooster - has begun and will last until Feb 15, 2018.This year is unique having 13 lunar months instead of 12 ,which means there are 384 days in Rooster year 2017.It is to keep the Chinese lunar calendar within half a month of the traditional solar calendar, there will be a leap month in 2017 (a second lunar month 6 starting July 23rd).
But the most interesting thing to know is that if you look at the map of China, its shape is remarkably similar to that of a rooster. Its head is in the North-Eastern provinces, its magnificent tail includes the Xinjiang and Tibet provinces and its wings spread across resource-rich basins of the Yangtze and Yellow River. This rooster's belly is in the southeast, and Hainan and Taiwan islands are its legs. A tour guide in a Yangtze River cruise, indicating this similarity, explained: "This shows that Taiwan is definitely an integral part of China. Rooster does not like to stand on one foot for too long."
Courtesy - Facts-Philately-Enjoyment Digest
On the 126th anniversary of Agatha Christie's birth…
Agatha Christie’s popularity IS SLIGHTLY LESS than god (pt II)
© Dr.Satyendra Kumar Agrawal
The history of detective fiction is a history of bestselling writers – Conan Doyle, Dorothy L. Sayers, and more recently, crime writers like James Patterson and Patricia Cornwell – but Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie -The “Mystery Queen is in the Guinness Book of World Records as the World's Bestselling Authorof all time. Her books have sold over 2 billion copies in 44 languages.
After working as a nurse during World War I, Christie became an apothecaries' assistant, allowing her access to a myriad of toxins and perhaps this was the reason she chosen method of death by poisoning in many of her mystery novels. The Pale Horse is one of them and in West Germany in 1981; a criminal attempted murder copying the manner adopted in this novel.
HER NOVEL SAVED A DYING GIRL
“The Pale Horse” novel not only used to plan a murder but also helped to save life of a toddler. Hewas dying from some sort of wasting disease that no one could seem to identify, until one of her nurses recalled “The Pale Horse”, the Christie novel she was reading. The Christie character was a victim of thallic poisoning and suffered from many of the same symptoms as the dying tot. In a last-ditch effort to figure out what was going on, the nurse had the patient’s thallium levels tested. They were more than 10 times the normal amount. After treatment, the girl made a full recovery. It was later determined that pesticides containing the deadly substance were regularly used around her home.
“MANX GOLD” HELPED PROMOTING TOURISM
Her novels also helped in promoting tourism onIsle of Man. In 1930, Agatha Christie was commissioned to write “Manx Gold”, a mystery story serialized in the “Daily Dispatch”. It contained cryptic clues to the hiding places on the island of four £100 treasure-hunt prizes, with the idea of enticing vacationers to the Isle of Man — and it worked !
“Manx Gold”, Isle of Man, 2003
One of a set of six stamps issued by the Isle of Man Post focusing on writers and literature associated with the island. Each stamp in the set includes an extract from the featured publication in micro text, which can be read with a strong magnifying glass.
WHEN SHE HERSELF BECAME REAL LIFE- MYSTERY
She was not only “Queen of Mystery Novels” but herself became headline news in a real-life mystery when for 10 days in December 1926, she vanished after crashing her Morris motor car. Massive police searches failed to trace her whereabouts, and the newspaper investigations rivalled those of today's tabloids in their fancifulness if not their scatological detail. Agatha was eventually traced to the Hydropathic Hotel in Harrogate. She had lost her memory. The hotel register showed she had used an assumed name. Confusingly, she also placed a classified advertisement in The Times requesting that friends and relatives make contact. The assumed surname she adopted was identical with that of the woman loved by her husband, Archibald Christie. Some months after the incident he and Agatha separated.
Missing Agatha was traced to the Hydropathic Hotel in Harrogate
The Harrogate Hotel Mystery, FDC GB 1991
DETECTIVE POIROT’s BOOKS HONOURED ‘MYSTERY SERIES OF THE CENTURY’
She created all time famous and much loved character - the fastidious Belgian sleuth, HerculePoirot in 1916 for her first novel ‘The Mysterious Affair at Styles’. Out of 66 murder and detective mysteries, 33 were featuring Poirotand at the Bouchercon World Mystery Convention in May 2000 they received the honour ‘Mystery Series of the Century’.
Hercules Poirot, Solomon Islands 2015 and Nicaragua 1973
Hercules Poirot reached international fame in 1926, when "The Murder of Roger Ackroyd" was published. The mystery concerns a killing for which all suspects appear to have an alibi, until the murderer’s method is revealed in clever plot twist. The solution of this mystery, of the narrator as prosecutor, originated a violent debate in the world of the mystery novel.
Detail from "The Murder of Roger Ackroyd", GB 2016 depicting Lover's suicide note reprinted in full in micro text.
The popularity that Poirot received then has continued. His tiny "gray cells" are legendary for their exactitude. Poirot is classified as belonging to the system of intuition, using the theoretical approach instead of the scientific for deduction.
HER NOVEL KEPT IN LOCKER FOR 35 YEARS BEFORE PUBLISHING
But, Christie disliked Hercule Poirot, calling him ‘a detestable, bombastic, tiresome, egocentric little creep’and actually planned to kill him off as early as the 1940s, when she wrote ‘Curtain: Poirot’s Last Case’, the novel in which Poirot meets his end.
Towards the end of the novel, the great detective dies leaving a sealed envelope addressed to his 'Watson', Captain Hastings, containing the solution to the case. 'We shall not hunt together again, my friend. Our first hunt was here - and our last.'
But Poirot not finally killed off – until 1975, a year before Christie herself died. She stored this novel in a US bank vault, heavily insured against its destruction by Nazi bombs. Intending it to be published after her death, she was persuaded to release it in 1975 when it became clear she was too aged to write a new book for Christmas. Its first edition set a record sale of 1, 50,000 in first year.
‘Curtain: Poirot’s Last Case’
POIROT IS ONLY FICTIONAL CHARACTER FOR WHOM AN OBITUARY PUBLISHED
The death of the world's most famous Belgian made an extraordinary impact. Among many obituaries was one with a photograph on the front page of the New York Times-the only time a fictional character has been afforded this accolade.
The New York Times published an obituary for Agatha Christie's character Hercule Poirot on its front page in 1975.
MISS MARPLE WAS MODELLED ON HER MATERNAL GRANDMOTHER
In the literature world, Agatha Christie is the only crime writer to have created two equally famous and much loved characters - HerculePoirot and Miss Marple.
The intuitive English Spinster detective ‘Miss Marple’,featuring in 12 novels was based, in part, on her step-grandmother and in words of Christie- “some of my step-grandmother's Ealing cronies—old ladies whom I have met in so many villages where I have gone to stay as a girl.”
Miss Marple’ Dominica 1996 and Guernsey 1996
Margaret Rutherford as Miss Jane Marple in movies: Murder, She Said (1961); Murder at the Gallop (1963); Murder Most Foul (1964); Murder Ahoy (1964); The Alphabet Murders (1966)
‘Murder at the Vicarage’, set in the village of St Mary's Mead is the murder mystery novel in which the redoubtable Jane Marple makes her first appearance. Her deductions are based on character observations, often linked to the behaviour of the inhabitants of the village.
‘‘Murder at the Vicarage’, Reverse side of the Booklet pane, GB 1991
In 2013, it was voted the best crime novel ever by 600 fellow writers of the Crime Writers' Association.
MISS MARPLESTORIES IN ONE VOLUME HOLDS RECORD OF WORLD’S THICKEST BOOK
In 2009, Harper Collins published the World’s Thickest Book containing in one volume allAgatha Christie's Miss Marple stories - 12 novels and 20 short stories making it a Guinness World Records.
The book is as much a technological feat as a literary one, if not more so. It is 4,032 pages long, all collected in a spine 322 mm (12.6 inches) thick, bound in maroon leather with gilt writing on the cover and appropriately enough, paged edged with red speckling. At 8.02 kilograms, it weighs as much as a medium-sized dog, even more when it's in its bespoke suede-lined wooden box with a handle. It's made up of 252 separate 16-page sections, which are hand-sewn together and to the spine reading at a pace of 30 pages an hour; it would take around 134 hours to finish the book.
In this collection, there are 68 crimes committed; 11 philandering lovers; 68 secrets and lies; 22 false accusations; 59 red-herrings and 21 romances. In all, 43 murders are solved: 12 poisonings; 6 strangulations; 2 drownings; 2 stabbings; a burning; one blow to the head; one death by an arrow and 2 people pushed. 143 cups of tea are drunk in the massive volume, there are 66 maids and 47 garments are knitted. 500 copies of this limited edition record-breaking book are produced and retails atan eye-watering price of £1,000 each.
World’s Thickest Book comes with a handle
……Contd. Pt 3
-Dr Satyendra Kumar Agrawal : email : email@example.com
United States Columbian Issue
-Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta
The Columbian Issue, often simply called the Columbians, is a set of 16 postage stamps issued by the United States to mark the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893. The finely-engraved stamps were the first commemorative stamps issued by the United States, depicting various events during the career of Christopher Columbus and are today highly prized by collectors.
John Wanamaker, founder of the Wanamaker’s department store chain, was Postmaster General from March 2, 1889 until March 6, 1893. He got the idea to commemorate, or recognize, an historic event with special stamps designed for that purpose. The ultimate result was the Colombian Exposition issue. This colorful and elegant series of stamps, the first commemoratives ever issued in the United States (or the world, for that matter) celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s landing in the New World in 1492, by portraying a number of scenes from Columbus’ life. Instead of presenting them in chronological order with increasing postage value, Wanamaker decided to portray the most important events in his life on the least expensive (and most commonly used) stamps in the series.
The Columbian stamps were supplied by the American Banknote Company, which held a four-year contract for the production of United States postage stamps beginning on December 1, 1889. However, where previous contracts had required printing firms to provide designs and plates at their own expense for any new stamps required by the Post Office, the 1889 contract specified that the Post Office would bear those costs. Indeed, Postmaster John Wanamaker executed a new contract with American Banknote Company specifically for the Columbian stamps without going through any competitive bidding process, which allowed the firm to charge 17¢ per thousand stamps, in contrast to the 7.45¢ per thousand it had been collecting for stamps of the 1890 definitive series. This arrangement prompted considerable public criticism − not allayed by American’s argument that the Columbians’ size (double that of normal stamps) warranted a higher price − and Wilson Bissel, who became Postmaster General after Grover Cleveland reassumed the Presidency in March 1893, attempted to renegotiate the stamp contract on terms more favorable to the Post Office.
Fifteen of the stamps went on sale Monday, January 2, 1893. They were available nationwide, and were not restricted to the Exposition in any way. This was a larger number of stamps than the United States Post Office had ever offered in a definitive series, thanks to the unprecedented inclusion of stamps denominated $1, $2, $3, $4 and $5. No U. S. postage stamp previously issued had cost more than 90¢. A sixteenth stamp - 8 cents, to cover the newly lowered registered letter fee - was added in March. As a result, the face value of the complete set was $16.34, a substantial sum of money in 1893. In 2009 dollar value, the set would cost almost $390. As a result, only a small number of the most expensive stamps, especially the dollar values, were sold. Unsold stamps were destroyed after the Columbian Issue was removed from sale on April 12, 1894. In all, the American Banknote Company printed more than 2 billion Columbian stamps with a total face value exceeding $40 million.
Opinion was mixed regarding the Columbian Issue at the time. The set sold well and did not face the sort of criticism that led to the withdrawal of the 1869 Pictorial Issue. However, approval was not universal. An organization called the Society for the Suppression of Speculative Stamps (sometimes called the Society for the Suppression of Spurious Stamps) was created in protest over the creation of this set, deeming the Exposition in Chicago insufficiently important to be honored on postage, while some collectors balked at the Post Office Department's willingness to profit from the growing hobby of philately. Ridiculing the $5 stamp, the Chicago Tribune pointed out that it could be used for only one purpose: mailing a 62½-pound package of books at the book rate.
The Columbians did not immediately increase in value after being removed from sale, in part due to substantial speculation resulting in a glut of stamps on the secondary market. However, as of 2006, depending on condition, a full set might be valued at $100,000 or more.
It was not only in design and commemorative purpose that this issue proved a watershed in U. S. stamp history. The Columbians, like all previous U. S. stamps, had been produced by private security printers on limited-term contracts periodically put out for bidding. They proved, however, to be the last U. S. stamps printed by a private company for many years. For in early 1894, the American Bank Note Company failed to secure a renewal of its stamp contract because the U. S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing submitted a lower bid; and the Bureau went on to enjoy a monopoly on U. S. stamp production for many decades thereafter. Not until 1944 would a private company again produce U. S. stamps – the Overrun Countries series, which required special multicolor printing. The Bureau subsequently resumed its exclusive role in production, only gradually relinquishing it over the next sixty years. U. S. stamp operations at the Bureau ceased entirely in 2005. Scholars believe that the Bureau's first task in 1894 was to finish some Columbian sheets printed by American. What makes this theory plausible is that, while many Columbian stamps are perfectly perforated, others are distinctly substandard in this regard, with partially punched chads and/or holes that are missing, ragged or misplaced - flaws that would also mar the stamps of the first Bureau definitive issue, released later in 1894.
Entitled "Columbus in Sight of Land", this lowest value in the set was based on a painting by William Powell and was one of several to be engraved by Alfred Jones. Jones added three Indians to the sides of the image, making this the first United States postage stamp to depict Native Americans. This stamp was primarily used to pay postage on third-class mail.
Because the images in the series were not based on the works of a single artist, Columbus's appearance changes dramatically between this stamp, where he is clean-shaven, and the 2-cent value, where he sports a full beard, despite the depicted events occurring only a day apart. A total of 440,195,550 one cent stamps were printed. The one-cent “Columbus in Sight of Land” was ranked #46 in the book 100 Greatest American Stamps by Janet Klug, Donald Sundman, 2008.
John Vanderlyn's painting "The Landing of Columbus", originally commissioned by Congress, and already used on $5 banknotes and the 15-cent stamp from the 1869 Pictorial Issue, was again pressed into service. By a substantial margin, this is the most common stamp of the Columbian Issue. Because two cents covered first-class domestic mail at the time, 1,464,588,750 two-cent stamps were printed, over 70 percent of the total number of the Columbian Issue, making it the most common Columbian today. Damage to one transfer roll resulted in a chevron-shaped notch in the hat of the third man on Columbus' right on some copies of this stamp. This variety, known as the "broken hat", is no longer considered significant enough for the Scott catalogue to provide it with its own minor number listing, although the catalogue still tracks separate, slightly higher prices for the variant, which is popular with collectors.
John Vanderlyn's Landing of Columbus (1842-47), U.S. Capitol Rotunda, Washington
A plate flaw that developed during the printing process resulted in a variety of the issue known as the "broken hat," referring to a nick in the hat brim of the third figure standing to the left of Columbus
Entitled "Flag Ship of Columbus", this value depicts the Santa Maria. It is generally believed that a Spanish engraving was the model for this stamp, but the source remains unknown. Regardless of its original source, Robert Savage performed the engraving used. Although over 11.5 million were printed, this stamp also did not pay any standard postal rate in 1893. Instead it was considered a "make-up" stamp, meant to be used in combination with other small denomination stamps to pay higher rates.
There is some dispute regarding the origin of the design of "Fleet of Columbus". Like the previous value, it is widely attributed to an unknown Spanish engraving. However, a similar image also appeared in an American book some six months before the Exposition. There are significant differences, however, and philatelic authors researching the issue have stated that it is not possible to conclusively determine the origins of the design with the information known. The stamp covered double postage on heavier first class items. In all, 19,191,550 four-cent stamps were printed. The most significant collectible variety in the set also occurs on this value. The normal colour of this stamp is ultramarine. A very small number of these stamps were printed in error using the wrong colour ink, a significantly darker shade that more closely resembles the blue of the 1-cent stamp. At least two error sheets, totaling 200 stamps, are thought to have been produced, although significantly fewer copies are known to have survived. The "4-cent blue" is thus considered a great rarity, selling for thousands of dollars; $15,750 in 2003 but only $9,000 in 2010.
Alfred Major created the design for this stamp, entitled "Columbus Soliciting Aid of Isabella", basing it off an 1884 painting by Václav Brožík called "Columbus at the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella". It was engraved by Alfred S. Major. This value was primarily used to pay the half-ounce Universal Postal Union international rate; five cents was the half-ounce international postage rate at the time. 35,248,250 of these stamps were printed.
In 1857, Randolph Rogers was commissioned to produce a number of door panels depicting Columbus's voyages, to be hung at the United States Capitol building. The 6-cent value in the Columbian Issue, "Columbus Welcomed at Barcelona", was taken from one of those door panels, the seventh in Rogers's chronology. The framing figure on the left is King Ferdinand of Spain. The one on the right is Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a Spanish explorer inspired by Columbus's return. Robert Savage was the engraver for the printed design.
Slight variations are known in the purple color of this stamp. The most dramatic, a colour called red violet, is considered significant enough to be given a minor number listing by Scott. However, this variation is not considered to be an error like the 4-cent blue and so does not command substantial premiums.In all, 4,707,550 of these stamps were issued, but 48,400 remainders were destroyed in Washington in 1899.
6¢ Columbian bottom plate block of 8
Daniel Kelleher Auctions, Aug 2012
6c Columbian, the red violet shade with bottom sheet-margin
plate "No. 104" ex-Higgins
When originally issued, there were only 15 stamps in the Columbian Issue. However, when the fee for registered mail was lowered on January 1, 1893, it necessitated the introduction of 8-cent stamps. A design was prepared based on a painting by Francisco Jover Casanova, and this stamp, titled "Columbus Restored to Favor", was added to the Columbian issue in March. A total of 10,656,550 of these stamps were issued.
A pale shade of colour
- Col Jayanta Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta - email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Incredible! Mosquitoes earned three Noble Prizes
“Ek Machhchhar aadmi ko hijda bana sakta hai”. I heard this famous Hindi film dialogue several times. But I never heard that “Ek Machhchhar aadmi ko tin Noble Prizes bhi dila sakta hai”. Yes it is a fact! With 2015 years’ Noble Prize for Medicine again goes to Malaria research, it is now three Nobles awarded to Malaria research in last one hundred years. And therefore Mosquitoes are accredited with three Noble Prizes so far. With a serious threat of dengue fever and Zika virus, there is every possibility that they may earn even fourth one too.
Regarded as one of the most deadly diseases on the earth once upon a time, Malaria is still not a very manageable disease and every year at least a million people lose their lives in it. The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria—"bad air"; the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its association with swamps and marshland. The term first appeared in the English literature about 1829. Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America, where it is no longer endemic, though imported cases do occur.
References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout recorded history, beginning in 2700 BC in China. Hippocrates described periodic fevers, labeling them tertian, quartan, subtertian and quotidian. The Roman Columella associated the disease with insects from swamps. Malaria may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire, and was so pervasive in Rome that it was known as the "Roman fever". Several regions in ancient Rome were considered at-risk for the disease because of the favorable conditions present for malaria vectors. Areas with the presence of stagnant water were preferred by mosquitoes for breeding grounds whereas irrigated gardens, swamp-like grounds, runoff from agriculture, and drainage problems from road construction led to the increase of standing water. Researchers have also established that close relatives of the human malaria parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some evidence suggests that the P. falciparum malaria may have originated in gorillas.
Being a widespread and potentially lethal human infectious disease, at its peak malaria infested every continent, except Antarctica. Various scientists and scientific journals, including Nature and National Geographic, have theorized that malaria may have killed around or above half of all humans who have ever lived. Its prevention and treatment have been targeted in science and medicine for hundreds of years. Since the discovery of the parasites which cause it, research attention has focused on their biology, as well as that of the mosquitoes which transmit the parasites.
In view of its wide spread lethal power, Malaria researchers have won multiple Nobel Prizes for their achievements, although the disease continues to afflict some 200 million patients each year, killing more than 600,000.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma or death. The disease is transmitted by the biting of mosquito, and the symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, re-infection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.
The disease is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood. The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria. The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans. Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or withantigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. The disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broad band around the equator. This includes much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty and has a major negative effect on economic development.
Signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 8–25 days following infection; however, symptoms may occur later in those who have taken anti-malarial medications as prevention. Initial manifestations of the disease - common to all malaria species - are similar to flu-like symptoms, and can resemble other conditions such as sepsis, gastroenteritis, and viral diseases. The presentation may include; headache, fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, hemoglobin in the urine, retinal damage, and convulsions. The classic symptom of malaria is paroxysm—a cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by shivering and then fever and sweating, occurring every two days (tertian fever) in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, and every three days (quartan fever) for P. malariae. P. falciparum infection can cause recurrent fever every 36–48 hours, or a less pronounced and almost continuous fever.
Severe malaria is usually caused by P. falciparum (often referred to as falciparum malaria). Symptoms of falciparum malaria arise 9–30 days after infection. Individuals with cerebral malaria frequently exhibit neurological symptoms, including abnormal posturing, nystagmus, conjugate gaze palsy (failure of the eyes to turn together in the same direction), opisthotonus, seizures, or coma.
Malaria has several serious complications. Among these is the development of respiratory distress, which occurs in up to 25% of adults and 40% of children with severe P. falciparum malaria. Possible causes include respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis, noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema, concomitant pneumonia, and severe anemia. Although rare in young children with severe malaria, acute respiratory distress syndrome occurs in 5–25% of adults and up to 29% of pregnant women. Co-infection of HIV with malaria increases mortality. Renal failure is a feature of blackwater fever, where hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells leaks into the urine.
Infection with P. falciparum may result in cerebral malaria, a form of severe malaria that involves encephalopathy. It is associated with retinal whitening, which may be a useful clinical sign in distinguishing malaria from other causes of fever. Splenomegaly, severe headache, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, and hemoglobinuria with renal failure may occur. Complications may include spontaneous bleeding and coagulopathy. May cause shock also. Malaria in pregnant women is an important cause of stillbirths, infant mortality, abortion and low birth weight, particularly in P. falciparum infection, but also with P. vivax.
In the life cycle of Plasmodium, a female Anopheles mosquito (the definitive host) transmits a motile infective form (called thesporozoite) to a vertebrate host such as a human (the secondary host), thus acting as a transmission vector. Only female mosquitoes feed on blood; male mosquitoes feed on plant nectar, and do not transmit the disease. The females of the Anopheles genus of mosquito prefer to feed at night. They usually start searching for a meal at dusk, and will continue throughout the night until taking a meal. Malaria parasites can also be transmitted by blood transfusions, although this is rare.
Malaria is usually confirmed by the microscopic examination of blood films or by antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). Microscopy is the most commonly used method to detect the malaria parasite. Despite its widespread usage, diagnosis by microscopy suffers from two main drawbacks: many settings (especially rural) are not equipped to perform the test, and the accuracy of the results depends on both the skill of the person examining the blood film and the levels of the parasite in the blood.
Malaria is classified into either "severe" or "uncomplicated" by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is deemed severe when any of these criteria are present; (i) Decreased consciousness, (ii) Significant weakness such that the person is unable to walk, (iii) Inability to feed, (iv) Two or more convulsions, (v) Low blood pressure (less than 70 mmHg in adults and 50 mmHg in children), (vi) Breathing problems, (vii) Circulatory shock, (viii) Kidney failure or hemoglobin in the urine, (ix) Bleeding problems, or hemoglobin less than 50 g/L (5 g/dL), (x) Pulmonary edema, (xi) Blood glucose less than 2.2 mmol/L (40 mg/dL), (xii) Acidosis or lactate levels of greater than 5 mmol/L, (xiii) A parasite level in the blood of greater than 100,000 per microlitre (µL) in low-intensity transmission areas, or 250,000 per µL in high-intensity transmission areas. Otherwise it is considered uncomplicated.
Cerebral malaria is defined as a severe P. falciparum-malaria presenting with neurological symptoms, including coma (with a Glasgow coma scale less than 11, or a Blantyre coma scale greater than 3), or with a coma that lasts longer than 30 minutes after a seizure.
The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by using mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water. Methods used to prevent malaria include medications, mosquito elimination and the prevention of bites. There is no vaccine for malaria. The presence of malaria in an area requires a combination of high human population density, high anopheles mosquito population density and high rates of transmission from humans to mosquitoes and from mosquitoes to humans. If any of these is lowered sufficiently, the parasite will eventually disappear from that area, as happened in North America, Europe and parts of the Middle East.
In areas where malaria is common, children under five years old often have anemia which is sometimes due to malaria. Giving children with anemia in these areas preventive anti malarial medication improves red blood cell levels slightly but did not affect the risk of death or need for hospitalization.
For thousands of years, traditional herbal remedies have been used to treat malaria. The first effective treatment for malaria came from the bark of cinchona tree, which contains quinine
. After the link to mosquitoes and their parasites were identified in the early twentieth century, mosquito control measures such as widespread use of DDT, swamp drainage; covering or oiling the surface of open water sources, indoor residual spraying and use of insecticide treated nets was initiated. Prophylactic quinine was prescribed in malaria endemic areas, and new therapeutic drugs, including chloroquine and artemisinins, were used to resist the scourge.
At the close of the 20th century, malaria remained endemic in more than 100 countries throughout the tropical and subtropical zones, including large areas of Central and South America, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. The reasons that have complicated control measures are; resistance of plasmodium to anti-malaria drugs, resistance of mosquito to insecticides and the discovery of zoonotic species of the parasite.
Vector control refers to methods used to decrease malaria by reducing the levels of transmission by mosquitoes. For individual protection, the most effective insect repellents are based on DEET or picaridin. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have been shown to be highly effective in preventing malaria among children in areas where malaria is common. Prompt treatment of confirmed cases with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) may also reduce transmission.
Mosquito nets help keep mosquitoes away from people and reduce infection rates and transmission of malaria. Nets are not a perfect barrier and are often treated with an insecticide designed to kill the mosquito. Insecticide-treated nets are estimated to be twice as effective as untreated nets and offer greater than 70% protection compared with no net.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the spraying of insecticides on the walls inside a home. As of 2006, the World Health Organization recommends 12 insecticides in IRS operations, including DDT. This public health use of small amounts of DDT is permitted under the Stockholm Convention, which prohibits its agricultural use.
There are a number of other methods to reduce mosquito bites and slow the spread of malaria. Efforts to decrease mosquito larva by decreasing the availability of open water in which they develop or by adding substances to decrease their development is effective in some locations. Electronic mosquito repellent devices which make very high frequency sounds that are supposed to keep female mosquitoes away do not have supporting evidence.
Community participation and health education strategies promoting awareness of malaria and the importance of control measures have been successfully used to reduce the incidence of malaria in some areas of the developing world. Recognizing the disease in the early stages can stop the disease from becoming fatal. Education can also inform people to cover over areas of stagnant, still water, such as water tanks that are ideal breeding grounds for the parasite and mosquito, thus cutting down the risk of the transmission between people. This is generally used in urban areas where there are large centers of population in a confined space and transmission would be most likely in these areas. Intermittent preventive therapy is another intervention that has been used successfully to control malaria in pregnant women and infants, and in preschool children where transmission is seasonal.
To be contd….
- Ilyas Patel : email : email@example.com
New issues from other Countries
Slovenia : 27 January 2017
Greetings Stamp - Miniature Painted Chest
Love... kept safely in a box
Over the centuries people in Slovenia have traditionally used at least three different types of chest. Large ones were used to store clothes and various valuable items. The most numerous kind were those used to store grain, and also dried fruit or beans. The third type consists of small chests, frequently also mere boxes or caskets, made of wood and other materials, that people used to store little items of value, gifts, letters and photographs.
These small chests are still widely used today. People use them to store special gifts that often represent the tangible manifestation of a romantic relationship, or even simply the memory of a love story. A first love letter, a chain, a ring, a pendant... All these items find a home in a vast variety of little boxes and caskets, where they represent, for their owners, the most intimate ties to specific individuals, memories of a special person, events, encounters, special days, personal celebrations or important milestones in their life. Such chests or boxes are often carefully stored and, together with the items they contain, afford us a genuine experience of memories of people, events and expressions of love.
25 January 2017: Wild Orchids
Gracious shapes and superb colours, this is what we think of when we hear the word “orchids”. We’re used to them as an exotic presence that we associate with distant tropical paradises, but Romania is also the homeland of several species of wild orchids. These orchids, few in number, about 70 different species, bloom on the hills and mountains of Romania from April to September. Some of them are extremely rare, most are threatened by expanding human activities, all being beautiful as a poem.
Epipactis atrorubens, illustrated on the stamp with the face value of Lei 2.20, in its popular name the Dark Red Helleborine is hardy and has a short, hairy rootstalk, often with multiple, fleshy roots. It blooms from June to July with inflorescences standing between 20 and 80 cm in height. The blossoms emit a strong vanilla scent, especially in warm weather. Although they sometimes vary in colour, they are generally reddish-brown, and they are often pollinated by insects, particularly bees. The fruit is a capsule, out of which the light, dust-like seeds are spread by the wind. A number of natural hybrids with other Epipactis species are known, like the hybrid with Epipactis Helleborine which produced Epipactis x schmalhausenii.
Epipactis atrorubens is widespread across Europe, and is found in the north to the subarctic, in the south to the Mediterranean, and in the east to Western Siberia and the Caucasus. The orchid grows at altitudes from sea level to 2400 m, but in Central Europe it has been in decline in recent decades. It is not, however, one of the most severely threatened species of orchid.
Cephalanthera damasonium (the White Helleborine), illustrated on the stamp with the face value of Lei 4.50, is a species of orchid which is widespread across much of Europe and the Middle East from England and Sweden to Russia and Iran; also Bhutan, India, Myanmar and Yunnan. It is the type species of the genus Cephalanthera. The flowers of this species hardly open, because they are autogamous (self-pollinating). This pollination means enables the White Helleborine to grow in deep shade, where the pollinators are almost absent.
Orchis purpurea, popularly known as the Lady orchid, illustrated on the stamp with the face value of Lei 8, is an orchid that can grow up to 100 cm tall. It has broad and oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 15 cm, forming a rosette at the base. The flowers in a rod assembly number up to 50 pieces, with a colour ranging from white to various shades of pink and purple.
This wild orchid grows in the sunny forests of Europe, North Africa and Turkey and blooms in April and May.In alternative folk medicine, the part that is underground is used in cases of indigestion.
Epipactis Helleborine (the Broad-leaved Helleborine), illustrated on the stamp with the face value of Lei 15, grows to a height of 80 cm and has broad dull green leaves which are strongly ribbed and flat.
It is widespread across much of Europe and Asia from Portugal to China, as well as northern Africa. Eight varieties of Epipactis Helleborine in central Europe (Lower Silesia, Poland) had their nectar studied and they were found to contain naturally occurring oxycodone (as well as another narcotic like opioid) in minute amounts.The issue is completed by a set of 4 different maximum cards.
30 January 2017 : Chinese year of Rooster
The year of Rooster begins on the 28th January 2017 and finishes on the 15th February 2018. The Rooster (or Chicken) occupies the 10th position among the Chinese zodiac animals. In Chinese culture, the Rooster represents fidelity and punctuality, for it wakes people up on time. People born in the year of the Rooster are beautiful, kind-hearted, hard-working, courageous, independent, humorous and honest. They like to keep their homes neat and organized. On the other side, they might be arrogant, self-aggrandizing, persuasive to others and wild as well as admire things or persons blindly.
Blogs & Websites
Philatelic Clubs & Societies
Baroda Philatelic Society - http://www.vadophil.org/
Chandigarh Philatelic Club
Deccan Philatelic Society – Pune, Maharashtra
Eastern India Philatelists’ Association - http://www.filacapsule.blogspot.com/
India Study Circle - http://www.indiastudycircle.org/
Indian Stamp Ghar - http://www.indianstampghar.com/
Indian Thematic Society, Ludhiana - http://indianthematicstamps.webs.com/
Ludhiana Philatelic Club
Numismatic & Philatelic Association of Vellore Fort http://numismaticphilavellore.site40.net/index.htm
Philatelic Congress of India - http://www.philateliccongressofindia.com/
Philatelic Society of Rajasthan, Jaipur
Rainbow Stamp Club - http://rainbowstampclub.blogspot.com/
Rajkot Philatelic Society – Rajkot, Gujarat
Gujarat Philatelic Association - Ahmedabad
South India Philatelists Association - http://www.sipa.org.in/
Stamps of India - http://www.stampsofindia.com/
The Army Philatelic Society, PuneRAINBOW STAMP CLUB
This is a blog of e-stamp Club www.rainbowstampclub.blogspot.com . The idea of this blog is to extend philatelic fraternity in all corners of the world. Readers may write about themselves with their collecting interests and share new ideas with other philatelists. New Post on recent issues, news on stamp activities and Contribution by members are published every day on this blog. Readers may also express their views on any philatelic matter which will be published under Club News at Rainbow Stamp Cub Blog. Philatelic Clubs and Societies may also send brief write ups. News about new issues of India and abroad and other information related with Philately are regularly posted on this blog. Readers may send reports on new issues, special covers, cancellations & philatelic activities of their area for inclusion in this Blog. - Editor
Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletters
VADOPHIL, Editor - Prashant Pandya and published by Baroda Philatelic Society, Vadodara. Website -http://www.vadophil.org/
ITS Stamp News - Quarterly - Editor: Suraj Jaitly Publisher: Indian Thematic Society website - http://itsstampnews.blogspot.com/
Ananthpuri Stamp Bulletin - Monthly e -stamp bulletin of Anathapuri Philatelic Association, Thiruvanthapuram
Journal of the Army Philatelic Society : Editor – Col Jayanta Dutta
SIPA Bulletin http://www.sipa.org.in/
Stamp of India Collectors’ Companion - India’s first weekly e-newsletter edited by Madhukar and Savita Jhingan from Stamps of India, New Delhi. E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.stampsofindia.com
India Post – Quarterly Journal of the India Study Circle publishes original articles submitted by members of ISC.
GPA News – Published by Gujarat Philatelists’ Association, Ahemadabad.
Stamps Today – Stamp & Coin Magazine edited by Vijay Seth
Courtesy - News and Image Resource to this issue : Indian Philately Digest , Stamps of India ; WOPA , Suresh R.- Bangalore, Naresh Agrawal – Bilaspur, Col Jayanta Dutta - Pune
Address for communication:
Jeevan Jyoti, c / o Mr. Ajay Srivastav Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box No. 18, Chandrabani, Dehradun – 248002. India
E-mail – email@example.com
Last date for receiving write ups – 25th of every month. Kindly send images in jpg compressed format & text in MS Word only.
If you liked this issue please forward it to your friends and help in promoting philately.
A Request to Readers & Contributors -
Please do not send the text in scan form or PDF. Send your write ups in MS Word only.
Kindly specify your contribution such as article/News/ Reader’s Right / Beginners’ Section/ Lighter Side etc.
Please do not send forwarded messages for promotional section if you want to give any information for promotion please write personally with brief write up. As this newsletter is not used for any commercial purpose in any manner.
Please send limited number of images in compressed jpg format only with your article. Please send text and images separately. Please do not send text or image for publication in PDF.
Please send limited number of images in compressed jpg format only with your article. Please send text and images separately. Please do not send text or image for publication in PDF.
Any material from this newsletter may be reproduced only with the written permission from the editor.
Rainbow Stamp News is edited and published monthly by Jeevan Jyoti, from Dehradun ( Uttarakhand) India.