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Rainbow Stamp News

Monthly e-Stamp Bulletin edited and published by Jeevan Jyoti from Dehradun.

Sunday, December 31, 2017

Rainbow January 2018




Happy New Year !

2018 – Year of the Dog


January 2018    Vol XI   Issue NO. 11




Lucky bamboo, a popular houseplant associated in many countries with good fortune, is featured on a new forever stamp from the United States Postal Service to be issued on 11th January 2018. The image of a dog originally created as a cut-paper design is printed in upper left corner of the stamp.

Dehradun January 2018 Vol XI Issue No 121



Readers are requested to send reports of philatelic activities in their area for publication. Short write ups by the readers about their journals, societies, publications and philatelic requirements can be sent for inclusion in this bulletin to the editor: j.jyoti9@gmail.com 

Note- This bulletin is only for circulation among a limited group of philatelists without any commercial purpose. The bulletin will be sent to the readers only on request. Those who wish to receive it regularly please reply giving the name of your city / country with the subject SUBSCRIBE RAINBOW



Dear Reader,


I am pleased to present 1st issue of Rainbow of the year 2018. Now Rainbow enters into 11th year of publication after completing 10 years.. I thank all the Readers and Contributors for their love, support and appreciation they have given to Rainbow in all these years. I hope to give more interesting articles and news and new regular columns in the forthcoming issues. My endeavor is to publish articles and news on a variety of philatelic subjects in the simplest  form so that both philatelists and non philatelists can enjoy it and a message about the benefits of philately could be sent to people of all age groups. This is the only aim of this newsletter. I am sure we all together can do it. I often receive mail from persons who came to know about Rainbow from Google search. They were not searching any philatelic item but searching some other information which they got it in Rainbow . Then they actually come to know that philately is such a wide field full of interesting facts and knowledge not just collecting small pieces of paper. They unknowingly fall in love with beautiful stamps. This is a great feeling and a real achievement for me from this newsletter. In this issue I am giving a special interview of Mr Deepak Gupta of Kanpur  who is promoting this hobby from Whats app group. Our columnist Mr Naresh Agrawal writes in detail about this group and discusses with him about various sub groups of Dphila. I always try to bring in limelight to all those who are selflessly working for the promotion of philately. This is all for this month.  More in next issue.

Wishing you a Very Happy New Year !

Happy Collecting !






Contents

§  From the Desk of Naresh Agrawal
§  Recent Indian Issues
§  In The News
§  Interview
§  Doon Philatelic Diary
§  Beginners’ Section
§  Specialized Section 
§  Lighter Side
§  New Issues from Other Countries
§  Philatelic Clubs and Society
§  Blogs & Websites on Philately
§  Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletter





  Dphila Whats App Groups  : New way to serve and promote philately


It was my extreme pleasure visiting INPEX 2017  and enjoying the every moment I stayed there. It was excellent  opportunity to meet my philatelic friends who are very well known in the philatelic community in India. Spending time on different dealers stalls, hunting for some of the materials, discussing different aspects of philatelic material with them, developing relations was one aspect. The other being the exhibits. I enjoyed watching some of the excellent exhibits in Postal History, Thematic, Traditional philately. I could gauge my stature too as an exhibitor. Truly it needs discipline, dedication, research, search, big pocket full of money and luck to develop a high quality exhibit and an exhibitor of repute.

Well, the important thing was that  I met  over hundred philatelists to whom I knew and have been communicating through digitally mainly using mobile phones and of course using social media such as face book or whats app. As I am member of various Dphila groups ,it was extreme pleasure meeting several members of those groups. Mainly the admins and co-admins Mr. Deepak Gupta and Mr.  Jugnu Kaul. Let me first tell you that Dphila group are the group of philatelists operative on mobile whats app. The first Dphila group was formed only about 2/3 years back   which helped its members  to interact, exchange or sell and purchase philatelic items at very reasonable prices. Them slowly looking in to various interests and demand of members and  to enhance membership  other Dphila groups were also formed to cater specific type and nature of service and members interaction. To name  a few  Dphila World Thematic, Dphila Postal History, Dphila Pre ind. India, Dphila Auction, Dphila Collections, Dphila Community Group, Dphila Research & News… I mean specific group name describe the type and nature of philatelic class and type it serves.  As I gather there are as many as 21 nos. of Dphila groups. I can only say ..Dphila has brought revolution in promotion of philately in India. The rising prices of philatelic material  and procurement difficulties have been checked to a big extent. Any member can have  material of his choice of his area of interest.

Regular updates, instant communication  and genuine deals have been the main character  and hall mark of these groups. My hats off to the team of administrators who are vigil all the time and take immediate strong action as soon as any malfunctioning or mistake is done by members. They even have control to the extent that they resolve issues between the members as and when arise.  I must say Mr. Deepak and Mr. Jugnu  are genuine philatelic promoters and developers in India. It is only because of their sincererity , dedication, hard work that   as many as over 50 Dphila members participated in INPEX and won higher awards because Dphila provided  its members what they wanted. The philatelic Chat board and research board is a platform where healthy philatelic discussions are held and views exchanged to  further refine  and enhance  the information to help one to become quality philatelist and an exhibitor.

Like about ten years back Mrs. Jeevan Jyoti recognized the importance of digital communication and introduced “Rainbow Stamp News”  a digital stamp bulletin which then brought   revolution in philatelic journalism, the same way it is Mr. Deepak Gupta, a young smart man from Kanpur   who identified and understood the importance and true utility of social media and  formed and  introduced these groups on whats app. But for his hard work, vision, dedication the success of these groups was not possible. Dphila international has its membership mainly from countries other than India. It is also controlled by his team. During discussion with him, I genuinely failed to understand that how he managed such huge number of groups apart from his personal, social and professional life. Such  a hardcore philatelist. He charges nothing for this and is  not benefitted financially in any way. According to him, serving philatelic community is far better than collecting stamps and / or exhibiting. Pleasure is there where you find it.. Mr. Deepak says that he finds pleasure in running these groups smoothly  and by seeing that so many philatelists are enjoying the group activities and are benefitted tremendously. They are getting service at their door steps. He is happy that Dphila has given him some very good friends. He is happy to see philately prosper.

Not writing much, I would say that Dphila has brought new revolution in philately in India & has helped promotion and development of philately in big way. Dphila now needs to be recognized and appreciated by all. It has now become a plat form for exchange views, research oriented discussions & easy sale, purchase and exchange of material. The only limitation with Dphila is that it can enroll only up to 256 members in any of its groups. Well, 256 is not a small number when we talk about active philatelists in India against a particular class of philately.

Well, I wish Dphila to prosper and serve philately the way it is doing. My heartiest thanks to Mr. Deepak Gupta and his team  and hope that their zeal to serve philately will remains forever.


-Naresh Agrawal  Ph. 09425530514



Recent Indian Issue







15 December 2017 : Shri Shirdi Sai Baba –Rs 5.
26 December 2017 :  Dr Shambhunath Singh – Rs 5
28 December 2017 : Dr Shivajirao Ganesh Patwardhan –Rs 5
29 December 2017 : Dadabhai Naoroji – Rs 5
29 December 2017 – Stepwells – set of 16 stamps : Rs 5 x 8 + Rs 15 x 8 + 1 MS + 21 Sheetlets
30 December 2017 : India - Papua New Guinea Joint Issue –Rs25 + Rs 5 + MS
30 December 2017 – Hand Fans -16 x Rs 15 stamps +3 MS +4 Sheetlets

31 December 2017 - Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan - Rs 5

Recent Special Covers




30 November 2017 : INPEX 2017 Save the Wildlife (3D Cover), Mumbai
1 December 2017 : INPEX 2017 World AIDS Day, Mumbai
3 December 2017 : INPEX 2017 Int Day of Persons with disabilities, Mumbai
7 December 2017 : Guruvayoor Guest House Ernakulam Karyogam, Kochi


14 December 2017 :  University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (UVCE) - Centennial Celebrations, Bangalore
15 December 2017 : His Holiness Swami Madhavananda , Tavarekere
16 December 2017 : Golden Jubilee - Indian Institute of Chartered Accountants- Ernakulam Branch
16 December 2017 : Acharya Pt. Chakradhar Joshi, Dehradun


In The News

USPS releases Alzheimer’s semi-postal stamp



The U.S. Postal Service issued a semi-postal stamp to raise funds for Alzheimer's on Nov. 30,2017.

Last month, U.S. Postmaster General Megan J. Brennan dedicated a stamp to fund research to help find a cure for one of the top 10 leading causes of death—Alzheimer’s.
The first-day-of-issue dedication ceremony for the U.S. Postal Service’s (USPS) Alzheimer’s semi-postal fund raising stamp took place at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore. The price of the stamp includes the U.S. first-class mail single-piece postage rate in effect at the time of purchase plus an amount to fund Alzheimer’s research. By law, revenue from sales of the Alzheimer’s Semipostal stamp—minus the postage paid and the reimbursement of reasonable costs incurred by the postal service—will be distributed to the National Institutes of Health, which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

“The Postal Service is proud to issue this stamp today to help raise public awareness of Alzheimer’s,” said Brennan. “Proceeds from its sale will help support urgently needed medical research into this incredibly debilitating disease.”

Joining Brennan in the ceremony were National Institute of Health Deputy Director of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) Dr. Marie A. Bernard and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center President Dr. Richard Bennett. Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center Memory and Alzheimer’s Treatment Center Director Dr. Constantine Lyketsos served as master of ceremonies.

“We’re in a new age of Alzheimer’s research with a number of efforts underway,” said Bernard. “NIA is working to identify new genes that affect Alzheimer’s disease and their role as risk factors or protective factors, to explore imaging techniques and ways to detect development of the disease well before symptoms appear, to develop and test new therapies, and to test and implement new approaches to providing care and supporting caregivers. The new semi-postal stamp will both raise awareness of Alzheimer’s research and care, as well as contribute to the search for effective ways to prevent and treat this heart-breaking disease.”


STAMP DESIGN


The artwork is an illustration that first appeared on the 2008 42-cent Alzheimer’s Awareness stamp. It shows an older woman in profile with a hand on her shoulder, the suggestion of sunlight behind her, and clouds in front of and below her.

On the 2008 stamp, she was facing left while the artwork for this stamp shows her facing right to help differentiate between the two stamps.


Block of six 1956 Melbourne Olympics stamps brings $26,400



A block of six 1956 Melbourne Olympics stamps realized $26,400 AUD at an October Mossgreen sale

An unused block of six 1956 Melbourne Olympics stamps in their original booklet crossed the auction block for $26,400 AUD (about $25,625 Cdn.) at the Oct. 3 Mossgreen sale of stamps, postal history and picture postcards.
Lot 132 of the 1,080-lot sale was described by auctioneers as a “superb and spectacular exhibit item” and “one of the most important stamp items from the reign of Queen Elizabeth II for the entire British Commonwealth.”
“It is also one of the most important Olympics items from any country, and of unissued stamps or booklets.”



The stamps included their original booklet covers (shown above)

The Australian Commonwealth Specialists Catalogue (ACSC) states the “increase of the basic letter rate to 4d on 1st October 1956 was done on short notice, and necessitated a change of value. No sheet stamps had been printed, but a printing was made from the 432-on booklet stamp plates comprising 27,000,000 stamps. Following the rates change the proposal for the stamp booklet was scrapped. The Post Office retained some uncut sheets of the 3½d booklet stamps [and destroyed the balance]. … The Archival Sales of 1986-1987 [sic: the sales were in 1987 and 1988] are the sole source of the 3½d stamps. In total 40 stamps were sold, comprising four singles, four booklet panes of six, and a Plate Number 2 block of 12.”

Recent Stamp Exhibitions





Commissioner for MACAO 2018 Philatelic Exhibition (FIAP)
Mr. Anil Suri has been appointed as Indian National Commissioner for the MACAO 2018, FIAP Specialized Stamp Exhibition to be held in Macao, Macau from 21 to 24 September 2018.

Exhibition Classes: Traditional, Postal History, Postal Stationery, Thematic, Youth, One Frame (TR, PH, PS, AE, AS, TH, MA & RE), Literature and Modern Philately only.

Eligibility: The minimum eligibility for participation in a FIAP exhibition for Senior Class & Youth Class (Groups B & C) is Vermeil Medal and for Youth Class (Group A) a Large Silver Medal secured at a National Exhibition.
Contact information:
Mr. Anil Suri,
Khushal Villa, E-70, Kalkaji,
NEW DELHI - 110 019.

Phone: (Res.) +91-11-2643 0813 / (Off.) +91-11-2647 4681
(M): +919811176908
Email: 
anilksuri@email.com




Commissioner for PRAGA 2018 Philatelic Exhibition (FIP)
Mr. Rajan Jaykar has been appointed as Indian National Commissioner for the PRAGA 2018, FIP Specialized World Stamp Exhibition to be held in Prague, Czech Republic from 15 to 18 August 2018.

Exhibition Classes: Traditional, Postal History, Modern Philately (Trad. & PH), One Frame (Trad. & PH), Open Philately and Philatelic Literature Classes only.

Eligibility:  The minimum eligibility for participation in a FIP exhibition for Senior & Youth Class Groups B & C is Vermeil Medal secured at a National Exhibition and for Youth Class Group A Large Silver Medal.
Contact information:
Mr. Rajan Jayakar
Flat No. 2, Court View, 126, Maharashi Karve Road,
Churchgate, MUMBAI - 400 020.

Phone: +91-22-22820570 / +91-22-22820572
(M): +9198210 72417
Email: 
rajanjayakar1948@gmail.com

FORTHCOMING INTERNATIONAL STAMP EXHIBITIONS UNDER FIP/FIAP

2018 May 27-31: Jerusalem, Israel, ISRAEL 2018 World Stamp Championship

2018 Aug 15-18: Prague, Czech Republic, PRAGA 2018 World Stamp Exhibition

2018 Sep 21-24: Macao, MACAO 2018 35th FIAP International Stamp Exhibition
2018 Dec: THAILAND 2018 World Stamp Exhibition

Promoting the hobby of  Stamp Collecting






Mr R.D. Mathkar, philatelist from Mumbai gifted 100 Packets of stamps to the children of Gundecha Education Academy, Mumbai on the occasion of Children’s Day.


Interview


Mr Deepak Gupta is a young entrepreneur from the industrial city Kanpur is a hardcore dedicated philatelist who  has the credit of pioneering the use of mobile app that is Whats app by forming different philatelic groups to cater the needs of philatelists of different classes, nature and cadre. It helps in sale and purchase of philatelic material. He successfully runs a huge number of different groups both on Whats App and Face Book which is highly commendable job..
A thorough gentleman, soft spoken but very strict disciplinarian and dedicated philatelist, Mr Gupta has a will to serve philatelic fraternity with the help of these groups. He has no financial interests in any manner in running these groups. A huge number of philatelists have been benefitted by becoming the members of these groups.
In spite of his dam busy business, social and personal schedules, he spares good time  for the sake of promotion of philatelists. Winner of several Gold Medals at different State Level stamp shows, a reputed sports person, a fervent nature-lover having  enormous affection & empathy for animals, a compassionate family man and an efficient entrepreneur..Mr Gupta still claims philately as his first love.

His interview below speaks tons of his personality. He is very open, honest and elaborative in his views. Undoubtedly his efforts have brought revolution in the field of philately in India. We hope the readers shall like, appreciate and love his interview.. Mr Deepak Gupta may be contacted at email: diipakgupta@yahoo.com   Mob..8188885555

Interview with Deepak Gupta



1.Please tell something about you to our readers .

I hail from an entrepreneurial lineage which I inherited from my father who pioneered pharmaceutical manufacturing in Kanpur in 1958 and the legacy continues even after nearly six decades. I am a fervent nature-lover with enormous affection & empathy for animals, a compassionate family man, a golf enthusiast, two times winner of the city level Billiards title and an efficient entrepreneur, but still, philately supersedes most of the above mentioned interests, unquestionably making it my first love. I delved into it in very nascent stage of life, probably during my pre teens. In the initial phase, it was merely a casual hobby until I gradually learned about its nuances and discovered the boundless world of philately, which was never-ending like an ocean. I was so smitten and enchanted by the fascinating world of philately, that even today, after being almost a four decade old collector, my zeal to learn about it and appetite to gather more is sky-high.

2.
To start with, please tell us when and how you came in to the clutches of this beautiful world of stamps and how you took it up?

My first encounter with philately was at the age of 12 years when I got an opportunity to visit the State Exhibition in IMA hall, Kanpur.  This visit left such an intense impact on me that I started visiting GPO quite frequently on the dates of new issues to keenly scroll through stalls of each and every dealer  because that entire ecosystem seemed  too engaging to my mind. I can certainly call it the inception of my inclination towards philately.

3.
Please tell us about your areas of philatelic interests and any achievements in the field of philately?

Initially, I started my collection with Great Britain stamps (7 frames), for which, I got Bronze, then Silver and finally graduated to Gold medal in various State level exhibitions. Steadily I  shifted my focus to Innovative Stamps of Bhutan (7 frames) & their Commercial usage, which too earned me a Gold Medal in a State level exhibition. I also constructed a collection on unusual Stamps of Sierra Leone and their commercial usage (7 frames), though it hasn’t been compiled / prepared and exhibited yet. Meanwhile, I  continued  collecting Classic Postal History worldwide, in which I have around 300 + pre-stamp covers of India, 300 + QV period covers of India, massive stock of worldwide classical covers (Belongs to 19th. Century), which are all an integral part of my philatelic treasure.

4. 
How do you find collecting stamps now  and to be in the field of philately, I mean meeting and interacting stamp lovers and other philatelic activities?

With the new age technological advancements, I certainly feel that the intricate process of  stamp collection has become way more convenient, smooth, easy and interesting, since the internet (ebay, whatsapp groups,face book etc) have provided a common platform, where people all across the globe can showcase their collections. One can not only see the current market trends but also the rarities which weren’t so easily accessible earlier. Previously, philatelists who visited dealers had no alternate, but to believe what they claimed. But  now everything can be verified and tallied online, which has made things immensely transparent. Today, when we bump into each other during exhibitions,  its warm to experience recognition, which wasn’t the case earlier. I fondly watch all philatelic activities worldwide, especially, WhatsApp groups, that brought people closer and transformed  the philatelic fraternity into a closely-knit family.

5.
You are the pioneer in India who formed whats app groups running successfully. Please tell us how the name Dphila came in to existence and how did you think about forming such groups?

Around  two years ago, I joined a WhatsApp group run from Australia and discovered how innocent philatelists were cheated in the name of Re.1 auctions. The Admin had  created a fraudulent syndicate to put bogus shill bids on items, which consequently resulted in  items being sold costlier than BIN prices available throughout. I registered my objection on this dirty and dishonest practice, which lead to my removal from the group, but the pain and agony of seeing naive philatelists being deceived stayed in my heart, which, ultimately resulted in  formation of my first whatsapp group called “’Dphila” (where D stands for first letter of my name ‘Deepak Gupta’ and Phila is the abbreviated  form of Philately.

6.
There are so many Dphila Groups on whats app now..please tell us about those?

 I always insisted on honest and sincere dealing in my group, which is and will always invariably be our prime motto. I always keep a vigilant check on the group activities  detach dishonest, fraudulent and corrupt  people from the group whenever needed. It’s a complete no nonsense philately platform. Hence, I  don’t permit any Non-Philatelic Activity in my group. Sheer professionalism, genuine conduct utmost sincerity, unbiased behavior and relentless efforts for enhancements in last few years have finally put us on a pedestal where people across geographies look up to my group and approach me to add them. But unfortunately, WhatsApp groups have a max capacity of 256 members, hence, I have created numerous groups and categorized  them according to collection interests. Currently ‘Dphila owns several WhatsApp groups (6000+ members) & facebook groups (approx 33000 members), cumulatively making it to nearly 40000 members in total. Name are furnished here under : 




1. ‘Dphila India Post Ind. Group
2. ‘Dphila India Post Ind. - 2 Group
3. ‘Dphila Auction Group
4. ‘Dphila FDC Group
5. ‘Dphila Special Cover Group
6. ‘Dphila India Pre Ind. Group
7. ‘Dphila Postal History Group
8. ‘Dphila Gandhi Group
9. ‘Dphila World & Thematics Group
10. ‘Dphila British Commonwealth Group
11. ‘Dphila SAARC Countries Group
12. ‘Dphila Numismatics Group
13. ‘Dphila Community Discussion Board 
14. ‘Dphila Community Discussion group
15. ‘Dphila Collection Sale Group 
16. ‘Dphila Literature & Collectibles Group 
17. ‘Dphila Odd Shaped / Unusual Stamps Group 
18. ‘Dphila International Group  (Full but only for foreign people)   
19. ‘Dphila Greater Group  (Full but only for foreign people)

Face Book Groups:
      1.‘Aphila : Number of Members - 13715
      2.‘Dphila : Number of Members -  7822
      3. Classical Postal History Collectors Club: Number of Members - 3730 
4. The Philatelic Club of Kanpur : Number of Members -  7441
5. Serious Philately Group: Number of Members - 234


7.
How do you manage such huge number of groups. What sought of problems, difficulties and issues you come across and how do you handle those?

I try to devote and dedicate as much as I can, to the groups. A few co-admins (Primarily Mr. Jugnu Kaul, Mumbai) too play a significant role, speaking of which, reminds me to mention, that, its also tremendously important to strike a balance between co-admins and members, because rifts have been witnessed between the two on several occasions. Also, resolving  and settling various types of disputes with the members plays a crucial role. It could be anything varying from supply to payment. Another daunting task is to regulate the posting of irrelevant / Non philatelic messages (Social Messages etc) and  to keep that front sorted, I am incredibly strict and illiberal. I teach and edify people about group etiquettes, point out their faults and give them opportunity to rectify unintentional mistakes, but repeat defaulters are unfastened from the group without any delay, because I don’t want the group to go astray from its core focus, which is philately. I educate people on PM about the process of  booking / listing items on the group timeline in order to maintain it.


8. It needs huge devotion, dedication, hard work, discipline, vigil to run such groups smoothly. What exactly you get out of this tremendous work?

I experience exuberance and gratification on witnessing group activities. It amuses me when I see these global philatelic transactions happening on a daily basis. Also, I feel delighted, that, I have provided philatelists a common podium to liquidate their excess stock and buy their aspired stuff at reasonable prices, which previously was almost a fantasy, because dealer offers are mostly at rock-bottom rates. They barely offer a fraction of the actual worth of the material, whereas, in case you are seeking something to buy, quotes are exorbitantly high and inflated, which disheartens philatelists  and could also lead in gradual decline in ardor and enthusiasm.

9.Tell us, how exactly the  philatelists of various taste and cadre are involved and benefitted by these groups.

I have skillfully pegged members under various categories on the basis of their philatelic interests, collection choice, theme etc. Hence, you will mostly find like-minded collectors in every particular group. This becomes even more significant because we cater to an exceedingly diverse spectrum of people, coming from different geographical locations, cultures and inclinations. This assortment helps the people seek the group of their specific interest even in such an enormous and elephantine pool.

10.
The readers would like to know as to how to become members of the group and what at all is required to remain a sincere member.

 Process to become a member is simple and sorted. Just PM me your WhatsApp number and group of interest and on FB just select any group and click join button. The members who follow the group rules, maintain decorum, deal honestly and sincerely and dont post any non-philatelic items are treated gracefully and are considered the most  dignified and  respected.

11.
Finally, while I thank you for what you are doing for philatelic fraternity, please tell us where do you see Dphila standing and what exactly is your aim

‘Dphila is one of the most prestigious, esteemed, genuine, widespread and reliable philatelic WhatsApp group in India and I want to maintain its reputation and stature, not only to promote the miraculous world of philately, but also to make sure that philatelic events  of national standing can be conducted flawlessly .

Interview : Naresh Agrawal


Doon Philatelic Diary

Sir Ronald Ross







Abhai Mishra


Sir Ronald Ross was born in Thomson House, Almora on 13 May 1857, just three days after the outbreak of 1857 Mutiny. His father Sir CG Ross was a Scottish officer in the British Indian Army while his grandfather Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Ross also served the Indian Army. He spent his childhood in Almora at the very same Thomson House where in 1898 during his third visit Swami Vivekananda stayed. At that time Thomson House belonged to Lala Badri Shah and Capt. Mrs. & Mr. Sevier, staunch follower of Swami Vivekananda resided there.




At the age of eight Ronald Ross was sent to England for his education. He developed interest in literature, poetry, music and mathematics though Medicine was never his first choice. On his father insistence he joined St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, London in 1874 and sat the examinations for the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1879. In 1881 he joined the Indian Medical Service and served in Madras, Burma and Andaman Islands. He developed interest in Bacteriology under Professor EE Klein while pursuing diploma in public health from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in England. In 1892 he started working on the spread of malaria disease. Earlier it was believed that malaria spread from air, thus the name “Mala” “Aria” meaning bad air.

While working in Secunderebad, Ross made the discovery that Anopheles mosquito was responsible for the transmission of malaria parasites in human. The day was 20 August 1897 and is celebrated as Mosquito day. He wrote a poem the very next day.

This day relenting God
Hath placed within my hand
A wondrous thing; and God
Be praised. At his command,
Seeking his secret deeds
With tears and toiling breath,

I find thy cunning seeds,


A paper titled “On some peculiar pigmented cells found in two mosquitoes fed on malarial blood” was published in the British Medical Journal on 18 December 1897. He received the Nobel prize for Medicine in 1902 for his outstanding work on the transmission of malaria disease. He became the first British Nobel laureate and the first born outside Europe. n 1926 he became Director-in-Chief of the Ross Institute and Hospital for Tropical Diseases, which was established in honor of his works. Ross died at the hospital of his namesake after a long illness and asthma attack on 16 September 1932. 

Abhai Mishra - email : abhai_mishra@rediffmail.com
-        

Letter to the Editor

Dear Jeevan Jyoti ji,

Heartiest congratulations to you on your singular achievement of completing ten glorious years of the uninterrupted  publication of Rainbow Stamp News . The magazine has carved a niche for itself not only in the hearts of philatelists , but also in the realm of philatelic journalism by its uniquely attractive, lucid ,interesting and very readable contents , from month to month.  

 Yours is indeed a mission to crown the hobby a king once again; and the more so in a way that serves its cause so fittingly at a juncture when Philately has risen from a hobby to the status of an academic subject . This aspect of your philatelic journalism is justly reflected in the Large Silver Medal won by Rainbow Stamp News at the recently concluded Inpex 2017. Congratulations.  

It gives me immense pleasure and satisfaction to be associated with Rainbow Stamp News both as a regular reader and as an occasional contributor of philatelic matters that include the maiden Urdu ghazal on Philately that appeared on 12.09.2013 on the Blog and in the October 2017 issue of the Magazine.

My compliments to you on your philatelic journey once again ; and best wishes  for reaching further milestones on the path to success.

Deepak Dubey, Bilaspur (C.G.)

Dear Mrs. Jeevan Jyoti,

Heartiest congratulation for the highest Award in Philatelic Literature Class in Inpex 2017.

On the second consecutive term Rainbow been honoured. This is a pride moment for Rainbow and its family of the readers.

This is the 10th years of Rainbow successful journey which has contributed a lot to the Philately, keep it up the spirit and joy of Philately and sharing to all your reader.

New arrival information of Malaysia, Israel, Nepal, Bhutan, UN etc we are sending you which I hope you are getting regularly from us.

Best wishes,

Pradip Jain, FRPSL

Dear Jyoti,

Thanks so much for the December edition of Rainbow Stamps. I really appreciate all the hard work you do to make it so informative and attractive.

Best wishes always,

Rashmi Luthera, 

Editor - After School

Beginners’ Section

Stephen Hector Taylor Smith : Pioneer - Rocket Mail


Stephen Hector Taylor-Smith often known as Stephen Smith, was a pioneering Indian aerospace engineer who developed techniques in delivering mail by rocket. Unlike Friedrich Schmiedl, whom the Austrian Authorities banned from further experimenting, Smith was encouraged in his experiments by Indian Officials; in the ten-year span of his experiments (1934-1944), Smith made some 270 launches, including at least 80 rocket mail flights.
He was born on 14 February at Strawberry Hill, in Shillong, Assam. Even as a boy, along with other schoolmates Smith attempted to transport live garden lizards in rockets over the swimming pool of St. Patrick's School, Asansol. He attended St. Patrick's from 1903 to 1911. Smith was the first rocket experimenter to successfully transport foodstuff, medicine and livestock via rockets.
Smith made careers as a customs official, a policeman and a dentist, he became the Secretary of the Indian Airmail Society, and combined his work with his interest in rocketry. His first launch was on 30 September 1934, experimenting with 270 more by 4 December 1944. 80 of these contained mail, and his achievements include the first successful rocket mail sent over a river and the first rocket to carry a parcel.
On 30 September 1934, he launched his first mail rocket, using a rocket made locally by the Orient Firework Company of Calcutta, the flight was a ship-to-shore launch, The rocket carrying 143 covers, left the D.V. Pansy and exploded mid-air scattering the mail over the sea. 140 covers were recovered and taken to the Saugor Lighthouse, where the keeper postmarked the mail. This was followed by: shore-to-ship, night, and miniature newspaper flights.

Smith’s flights in Sikkim, a British Protectorate in the eastern Himalayas, received official sanction from the local ruler, Here he carried out 20 successful rocket experiments and achieved the first rocket parcel mail, the Oriental Fireworks Company supplied Smith with 16 rockets between 23 March 1935 and 29 June 1935. Between them, these "Silver Jubilee" flights carried over a thousand covers.

Smith made history once again, when he used his rockets to carry a food package across a river to the Quetta region, which had suffered an earthquake, the package contained: rice, grain, spices, biris (Indian cigarettes) and 150 rocketgrams.

Stephen Smith also effected the world’s first livestock transport when on 29 June 1935, a rocket carried a cock and hen together with 189 rocketgrams across the river Damodar. Both animals survived the flight and were donated to a private zoo in Calcutta. A later effort, successfully carried; a snake (Miss Creepy), an apple and 106 covers. Smith demonstrated his experiments during the war years, few items of mail were carried on these flights, The last series of rockets were gas propelled and the last flight took place on 4 December 1944.

Stephen breathed his last on 15 February 1951, 11 days after his 60th birthday, and is now immortalised as the Father of Aerophilately in India, the Department of Posts in India issued a stamp honouring this Anglo-Indian pioneer of airborne mail during his birth centenary celebrations

Courtesy - Jagannath Mani, Bangalore

Specialized Section

 The Hawaiian Missionaries








Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta



 An Act establishing a postal service was passed by the Hawaiian Assembly as early as 1846, but nothing was done to implement this until 1850 when a subsequent act laid down an external postal rate of 10 cents per letter (reduced the following year to 5c on the introduction of adhesive stamps).

The post office established in September 1851 wasn’t under government control but was farmed out to Henry M. Whitney, a printer and stationer of Honolulu who published a newspaper − The Commercial Advertiser.



First postmaster of Hawaii, Henry Whitney designed and printed the kingdom’s first stamps on the printing press of the government newspaper.  Whitney was the son of missionaries

It isn’t known whether the first stamps were printed there, or at the office of the government paper, The Polynesian.  The stamps were type-set and printed in September 1851, being placed on sale the following month.

The Polynesian of October 4, 1851 mentioned the issue of three denominations of 2c, 5c and 13c. The lowest value prepaid the newspaper rate while the 5c represented the letter rate. The 13c stamp denoted the payment of three separate fees – 5c Hawaiian postage, 6c United States postage, and a 2c ship letter fee for conveying the letter from Hawaii to America.  All three stamps were inscribed in upper and lower case lettering ‘Hawaiian Postage’, though the 13c was re-issued in 1852 with the inscription amended to ‘H.I. & U.S. Postage’.

Because the majority of the known examples of these stamps were discovered on correspondence from US missionaries they acquired the nickname of the ‘Missionaries’. These stamps are all major rarities, especially the 2c denomination for which there was little use, since the inland service for which it was intended didn’t materialize until eight years later. In any case, most 2c stamps when used on newspaper wrappers would have been torn and discarded when the wrapper was removed.

The stamps were printed in blue ink on extremely thin, brittle paper and thus few of the Missionaries are in perfect condition. They continued in use until 1853 when they were superseded by intaglio designs printed by Holland of Boston.

 



The most celebrated of all the entire letters is the cover addressed to Miss Eliza A Dawson of New York, bearing the 2c and 5c Hawaiian stamps, but having the US postage paid by means of a pair of the US 3c Washington stamps.  The Hawaiian stamps bear the red Honolulu postmark while the US pair were cancelled at San Francisco before the letter made the journey overland to New York. It was in a bundle of correspondence shoved into a factory furnace around 1870, but packed so tightly that the fire went out (though one side of the cover bears a scorch mark). The factory was abandoned and only 35 years later a workman cleaning the factory for reuse discovered the stuffed furnace, and knew enough about stamps to save the unusual covers. This cover was acquired by George H. Worthington in 1905 for $6,000. When the Worthington collection was sold in 1917 to Alfred Caspary, this rarity realized only $6,100. Harmers disposed of the Caspary collection in 1957 when it made $25,000.  It has changed hands several more times.  The Weill brothers bought it for $25,000 in 1957 for Benjamin Dwight Phillips and eleven years later disposed of it from the Phillips collection for $90,000.  In the 1995 Siegel auction it was bought by Geoffrey Brewster for $1.9 million plus 10% buyer's premium and in 2013 it was sold for $2.24 million to an American collector, making it one of the highest-priced of all philatelic items.


Dawson cover, only known use of the 2 cent value on cover, as well as a 5-cent value and two 3 cent US stamps

Only 28 covers bearing the Missionary stamps are known to exist, but the Dawson cover is the only one to bear the 2 cent stamp. There is also a piece bearing the 2c and 13c (first type) side-by-side.  From the surviving fragment of the cover it appears to have been addressed to a Miss A… and the stamps are tied by the red San Francisco postmark of March 15, 1851. In the above mentioned 1995 auction this piece was knocked down to the US National Postal Museum for $99,000.  A baker’s dozen of used 2c stamps are known off paper, including one in the Tapling Collection at the British Library in London.


13c Hawaiian Missionary strip of three on cover


13c Hawaiian Missionary issue of 1851 on cover

In 1920, 43 additional Missionaries appeared on the philatelic market. They came from a Charles Shattuck, whose mother had apparently corresponded with a missionary family in Hawaii. They were acquired by George H Grinnell and then sold to dealer John Klemann for $65,000. But in 1922, these stamps' authenticity became the subject of a court case, and they were adjudged forgeries.

They have been studied on a number of occasions since then, but opinion remains divided. In 1922, experts testified that the Grinnells had been produced by photogravure and not by handset moveable type, but in the 1980s Keith Cordrey contended that they were probably typeset, and the Royal Philatelic Society London agreed.  Further analysis showed that the ink and paper were consistent with 1850s types. Even so, the Royal Philatelic Society declared the stamps to be counterfeit.  A book detailing their findings was published in 2006 titled The Investigation of the Grinnell Hawaiian Missionaries by the Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society London by Patrick Pearson.

In May 2006, Mystic Stamp Company announced that they had acquired 36 of the Grinnells from the descendants of George Grinnell, and were selling the group "as is" for US$1.5 million.



The Grinnell Missionaries

Many of the surviving Missionaries are repaired, and David Beech has commented that they probably would not have survived had they not been.

A very interesting story is linked to the 2-cent stamp.  In early 1890’s Gaston Leroux, a well known Parisian philatelist was found murdered in his flat.  The police were unable to find any motive connected with the crime.  Leroux was an amiable man without any enemies.  Evidently the crime had not been committed for monetary gains as large sums of money kept in various rooms were untouched.  A diamond studded watch and some gold coins kept in a half open drawer were also not taken.

Detectives put in charge of the case were initially baffled, but one of them, a keen philatelist himself, was able to find a lead.  He went through Leroux’s collection and soon discovered that one stamp was missing.  It was the 2-cents Hawiian missionary stamp of 1851.  This stamp is one of the rarest stamps in the world and only seven copies are known.  The detective concluded that it was possible that the murder was related to the missing stamp.

He visited a dealer in Paris who might have been able to sell a stamp of this kind, but without any results.  He then made a list of Leroux’s friends who were interested in collecting stamps.  Eventually his suspicious centered on Hector Giroux, a close friend of Leroux’s and also a keen philatelist.  The detective went undercover, posing as a stamp collector and became closely acquainted with Giroux.

One day Giroux invited the officer to his flat.  The detective saw this as a good opportunity and steered the conversation towards the subject of rarities -- especially of the 2-cents Hawaiian Missionaries.  Enthusiastically Giroux produced an example of the stamp, the very specimen for which the detective had been searching.

The following day Giroux was arrested and questioned.  He failed to produce any evidence of how he had acquired the stamp and eventually he was charged with murder and brought to trial.  On the stand, he broke down and confessed that he had murdered his friend. 

The 2-cent stamp was desperately needed by Giroux to complete his set of Hawaiian Missionaries.  When he had offered to buy it off, Leroux refused to part with it.  Giroux’s desire to possess the stamp made him commit the crime.
This particular stamp had originally been in the collection of Ferrary and Burrus.  After this adventure, it continued to change hands and realized $ 41,000 in 1963 at an auction in New York.

On October 24, 2002 the US Postal Service issued a miniature sheet bearing a strip of four 37c stamps, each of which reproduces one of the Missionaries including the two versions of the 13c.  The sheet also depicts the most celebrated of all Missionaries covers, the one addressed to Miss Eliza A Dawson of New York.




The Dawson cover and four of the stamps are shown on the 2002 Souvenir Sheet

-       Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta - email : doctorjayanta2009@gmail.com

The Story of Building Bridges


Journey from Bronze to Gold at National Exhibition










-ILYAS PATEL : email : iap.patel@gmail.com

The history of bridge building is closely associated with the history of human civilization and therefore Bridges are regarded as an index of civilization. They indicate the progress made by the society during a particular period. Starting from the simple Stepping Stone Bridges man has now developed highly skillful and elegantly designed Cable Stayed bridges. In this context, a bridge is not only a mere civil structure built using sand, stone, steel and cement but is much more than that. A bridge besides being a civil structure to shorten distances, speed up transportation and facilitates commerce, is an expression of man's creative urge - a challenge and an opportunity to create something useful and beautiful.

It is due to these reasons almost all countries have tried to maintain and preserve their historical bridges as their National Heritage and recognized them by depicting them on their postage stamps, postal stationary, special postmarks and other related philatelic materials. They are also being pictured as and when new mighty and skillful bridges are constructed to indicate their technical achievements. Of late, even the United Nations/UNESCO is taking serious interest in preservation and protection of some of the historical bridges by declaring them as World Heritage Bridges and gave them philatelic recognition on UN postage stamps too.

Why we build a Bridge?

The primitive man was a wanderer in search of his food and fiber. He wanted to cross a river/stream/chasm or a canyon for better resources. He needed a bridge for quick cross-over. Thus primitive man built bridges primarily for making transportation safe, secure and fast. Subsequently, when he started settling and living in a community, he needed a permanent bridge for various other purposes such as; (i) farmer need water to grow his crop, (ii) shepherd need water for his cattle grazing, (iii) hunter in search of more food, (iv) woodcutter to have more wood, (v) trader for extension of his business and (vi) warrior to establish his supremacy.

What is bridge?

In its simplest form, a bridge is a passage across an obstacle. In present day engineering terminology, a BRIDGE is a structure that provides a passage over a river, a valley, a road or a railway without obstructing the way beneath. The passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline.

Importance of Bridge


It is well known that all the early human civilizations were settled along the river courses only, and therefore, all major cities have also been developed along the riverbanks. It is believed that bridge is a first civil structure constructed across the river to develop communication. Thus they form the vital link and backbone for the development of communication and trade for any society. History reveals that all great battles have been fought for cities and their bridges. Even in present day wars, bridges are the first targets for the effective military attacks.

In addition to its strategic importance, bridge imparts scenic beauty to the cities and thereby enhances the environment. They aid in enhancing the social, cultural as well as economical development of the locality where they stand. Thus besides bridge building, adjoining landscape development is also taken into account for its pleasant appearance and design. Therefore, in the present day design, special attention is devoted to the aesthetics of bridge structure besides their functional aspects specifically for design of highway bridges in urban areas. They are also the source of inspiration to the poets and writers. Historians and artists have never forgotten to figure prominent bridges in their write-up and paintings.

Basic forms of a Bridge

Bridges are built according to the structural principle adopted for the design of super-structure. Accordingly, the basic forms evolved are; arch, slab, beam, suspension and cable-stayed bridges. They are defined as under:





Components of Bridge

Basically, a bridge has following components namely;

Bridge - a theme for Development

The theme bridge provides ample opportunities and wide scope for its development due to the availability of huge as well as wide variety of philatelic material. Though this theme is a technical subject besides philatelic material,excellent reference literature is also available for study and reference. Based on this availability, the theme - Bridge can be developed in several different ways depending upon the choice of the philatelist and his knowledge on this theme. However, from the philatelic angle, the theme - Bridge can be developed under two broad sections; (A) Non-technical Classification and (B) Technical Classification.

(A) Non-technical classification

Under non-technical classification, this theme can be developed based onhistory time frame i.e. historical development in bridge building that took place over the years. This classification is independent of structural types and covers the story of bridge building that took place during various periods and bridges constructed by various civilizations. This can be elaborated further as:

(a) Historical Development in Bridge Building

(i)            The Beginning
(ii)          Early Bridges
(iii)       Roman Bridges
(iv)       Asian Bridges
(iv)       Medieval Bridges
(v)        The Renaissance
(vi)       TheEighteenth Century
(vii)      Era of Specialization and
(viii)     Modern Bridges.

(B) Technical Classification

Under the technical classification, bridges can be classified in many different ways depending upon their function, type of superstructure, material used for construction etc. The detailed classification presented here is for information only.  Under this category, bridges can be classified as (IRC:5 (1998); Victor (2004)):

(a)  Function of a Bridge

            (i)         Aqueduct
(ii)        Viaduct (road or railway over a valley)
(iii)       Footbridge
(iv)       Road Bridge
(v)        Railway Bridge
(vi)       Road cum Railway Bridge
(vii)      Flyover
(viii)     Interchange
(ix)       Movable Bridge
(x)        Pontoon Bridge
(xi)       Bridge over Spillway
(xii)      Pipeline Bridge
(xiii)     Bridge for Emergency needs
(xiv)     Aero Bridge
(xv)      Sky Bridge
           

(b)  Material used for construction of superstructure

            (i)         Timber
            (ii)        Stone or Masonry
            (iii)       Iron
            (iv)       Steel
            (v)        Reinforced concrete (R.C.C.)
            (vi)       Pre-stressed concrete
            (vii)      Composite
            (viii)     Aluminum

(c) Type of Superstructure

            (i)         Slab
            (ii)        Beam
            (iii)       Truss
            (iv)       Arch
            (v)        Cantilever
(vi)       Suspension
            (vii)      Cable Stayed

(d)  Inter-span relation

            (i)         Simple
            (ii)        Continuous
            (iii)       Cantilever

(e)  Position of the bridge floor relative to super structure

            (i)         Deck
            (ii)        Through
            (iii)       Half through
            (iv)       Suspended

(f)  Method of connection of different parts of steel superstructure

            (i)         Pin-connected
            (ii)        Riveted
            (iii)       Bolted
(iv)       Welded

(g)  Road level relative to high flood level of Road Bridge

            (i)         Causeway
(ii)        Submersible bridge
            (iii)       High level bridge

(h)  Method of clearance for navigation

            (i)         High level
            (ii)        Movable bascule
            (iii)       Movable swing
            (iv)       Transporter

(i)  Span Length

            (i)         Culvert (less than 6 m)
            (ii)        Minor bridge (6 to 60 m)
            (iii)       Major bridge (above 60 m)
(iv)       Long span bridge (when the main span is above 120 m)

(j)  Degree of redundancy

            (i)         Determinate
            (ii)        In-determinate

(k)  Type of service and duration

            (i)         Temporary
            (ii)        Permanent
(iii)         Military (Pontoon, Bailey)

Apart from the above two major classifications, bridges can also be classified as per the source of funds used for the construction of a bridge as under:

(C)  Source of fund/finance

            (i)         Self finance
            (ii)        Toll bridge
            (iii)       Friendship
            (iv)       International Co-operation
(v)        BOT (Built, Operate and Transfer)
(vi)       Annuity

Except B(a), B(b) and B(c), all other classifications are purely technical. They are only for information and have no significant relevance in the development of this theme.But one can use them judiciously. Generally the material used for construction and type of bridge goes hand-in-hand. Therefore they can be clubbed for simplicity of development.

In addition to above, there are certain topics that are directly and closely associated with design and construction of bridges which one cannot neglect. They are;

(i)     Bridge in Paintings
(ii)    Bridge as Logo or Symbol
(iii)       Post Office in recognition of bridges
(iv)       Bridge Designers and Builders
(v)        Bridge and Personalities
(vi)       Institutes related to Bridge Engineering
(vii)      Bridge Design and Construction
(viii)     Aesthetics in Bridge Design
(ix)       Bridge in Landscape
(x)        Bridge Disaster
           
The above topics can be correlated with the relevant bridge e.g. for a given bridge one can display his designer or a builder or being damaged/collapsed and replaced by new one or a postmark of a post office bearing the name of that bridge or being incorporated in paintings of renowned artists etc. At present, extensive philatelic material is available on each of these topics mentioned here in above. One can easily develop five or eight frame exhibit with details.

The development of various forms of bridges starting from pre-historic to the modern Cable-Stayed bridgesis schematically shown in Fig. 1.1 (after Bindra (2004) and Victor (2004)). The classification mentioned here is broad and indicative and for purpose of reference only. There is a further sub-classification under each category.



Natural Arch
Natural Stepping Stone
Accidentally fallen tree trunk
Inter-twinkling Vines














Post and Lintel Arch
Artificial Stepping Stone


Rope Bridge




Purposefully fallen tree trunk








Corbelled Arch
Type - I
Tarr - Steps


Bamboo Bridge










Clapper Bridge (wooden log on Tarr-Steps




Clapper Bridge
(Stone slab on Tarr-Steps)
Iron Chain Suspension Bridge
Corbelled Arch
Type - II










Timber beam
on
Timber piles
or
Timber Cribs






Modern Suspension
True Arch
(Voussoir Arch)
Stone Beam Bridge














Stone Cantilever Bridge


Cable-stayed Bridge
Steel Arch
RCC Arch










Timber Cantilever




















Steel Truss
Timber Truss






















Cast Iron Beam Bridge






















Plate Girder Bridge






















Composite Bridge






















RCC Girder Bridge






















Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridge









Fig. 1.1 - Development of various forms of Bridges (After Victor (2004))

Historical Development in Bridge Building


It is very difficult to establish when and where a man built the first bridge. It is also not practical to do so due to extensive change in landscape over the span of several hundred centuries. Even though, attempts were made to dig out the history. There is a reference of the "Tarr Steps" carrying a footpath over the River Barle on Exmoor which dates back to pre-Christian times (Ill. 1.1). The 17 span clapper bridge appears in the novel Lorna Doone as the "Devil's Bridge". There is a also a reference of "Clapper Bridge" over the river Dart in England by Samuel Smiles existing for twenty centuries (Ill. 1.2). It is recorded that it was a three span structure, each span 4.60 m long and 1.83 m wide. Edgar Wigram has described a stone slab bridge of uncertain date in his book on Spain.



1.1 – Tarr Steps at Exmoor, Dulverton, GB (PPC)  1.2 – Clapper Bridge at Dartmoor, GB (PPC)

According to Degrand, the earliest bridge on record is that built on the Nile by Menes – the first King of Egypt in about 2650 B.C. but no details are known about it. From the historical records, it has also been traced that there was a bridge erected by order of Nimrod, third ruler after Noah, across the Euphrates within the walls of Babylon. It is the oldest known arch bridge called Nimrod Bridge built in stone, the approximate date of which is about 1800 B.C. At present the oldest preserved arch bridge is Males Bridge in Turkey which dates back to approx. 850 B.C. and it is believed that it may have been used by Homer.

By about 510 B.C., the Greeks were beginning to rise in power. A notable contribution by them was Xerxes Bridge - a pontoon bridge built during the reign of Xerxes. As per the historical records, the Greeks made no significant contributions in bridge building.

The story of bridge building remains incomplete if the contribution of Chinese civilization is ignored. This remote and self-contained civilization was not affected by the western world and therefore they built bridges on their own. It is believed that Chinese bridge building began in about 2300 B.C. during the reign of the Emperor Yao. They built beam, cantilever and suspension bridges with typical designs to suit their needs. The most popular amongst them was timber cantilever bridges.

In the history of bridge building, the Romans made a great contribution. They brought the real engineering in bridge building and through their pragmatic viewpoint; they built some of monumental bridges of the world, few of them still exist even after twenty centuries. Being warriors and colonizers, they colonized entire Europe and the Mediterranean. They immediately learnt that for expansion and maintenance of their empire, efficient and permanent communication is very essential and therefore, they gave high priority to build the roads and bridges. A notable example was Caesar’s bridge over the Rhine, about 540 m in length and a pile type structure, which is reported to have been built in ten days. In addition to the pile-type bridge, the Romans developed the semicircular true masonry arch, which they used extensively in both bridges and aqueducts. The Trajan Bridge over the Danube near Turnu-Severin in Romania, built in 104 A.D., was the longest bridge in the Roman Empire, with a total length of about 1220 m consisting of twenty timber arches.

After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D., all technological skills of the Romans disappeared. Northern Europe fell into the dark ages. The Medieval period (477-1492), also designated as the Middle Ages or Dark Ages, was marked by a decline of civilization throughout Europe following the fall of Roman Empire. In Europe, it was an era of disruption of civil society by the incursions of new races and through general upheaval. No significant bridge building activity took place from the sixth to the tenth century. But by 1000 A.D., the authority of the Church was more or less complete in Europe and the Churchmen actively started to spread their spiritual and practical knowledge. They revived the bridge building activity along with construction of churches, monasteries and cathedrals. Significant contribution came from the churchmen who built two notable bridges namely Pont Saint Esprit and Pont d’ Avignon both over the river Rhone. Another notable bridge built during the medieval period was Old London Bridge, the first permanent structure across the Thames, Pont Valentre at Cahors in France as well as Kalsbrucke at Prague, Czech Republic.

During the Renaissance (1550-1700), modern science was born bringing radical changes in bridge building. This period was greatly influenced by new scientific theories that were invented during this period. These inventions provided insight in use of construction materials and method of construction. This laid a foundation stone for more scientific bridge building of the eighteenth century. The most important invention of the Renaissance was the invention of the truss as a structural principle. Andrea Palladio (1508- 1580), an Italian architect, is believed to have first used trusses, although his designs were not the result of rational analysis. The notable bridges built during this period were; the Rialto Bridge over the Grand Canal at Venice, Italy; Santa Trinita Bridge, at Florence, Italy; Bridge of Sighs in Venice, Italy; Pont Notre Dame and Pont Neuf in Paris, France, to name a few. In short, the Renaissance is regarded as a period of architectural refinement in bridge design.

The first half of the eighteenth century was normal and under the process of transition due to the influence of the Renaissance. The process of scientific inventions continued and made rapid progress. Several notable masonry arch bridges were built in Britain and France namely; the Westminster bridge, the Blackfriars bridge, the Waterloo bridge at Mantes to name a few. But the last part of the eighteenth century was stormed by the industrial revolution, which began in Britain and spread into Europe. The successful story of the industrial revolution began with the construction of the Coalbrookdale Bridge on the Severn Gorge in East Shropshire where the first Cast Iron Bridge of the world was constructed in 1779. This bridge opened a new era in bridge building with iron as prime material.

The nineteenth century was the century of specialization. The conceptual thinking and scientific inventions, which began in the seventeenth century, translated into reality during this century. Each passing year came up with new record length of span in bridge building due to developments in construction methods and new technology as well as better understanding of strength of materials. The invention of railway resulted into large number of railway bridges with more attention towards mastering in suspension bridge design. This century gained knowledge from genius engineers and scientists like Finley, Sir Samual Brown, Thomas Telford, Stephenson brothers, Gustav Eiffel, Isambard Brunel, Cap. James B. Eads, Jhon Roebling and many more. The noted bridges that came up were Menai Straits Bridge, Royal Albert Bridge, Eads Bridge at St. Luis, Niagara Suspension Bridge, and Brooklyn Bridge in New York as well as Forth Bridge in Scotland.

The twentieth century can be devoted to modern bridges with concrete as prime construction material. In this century, the strength of various construction materials was fully exploited. Many new concept, new technologies, construction techniques and new types of bridge designs were evolved. The concept of aesthetics in bridge design was introduced and accepted as a universal norm. The age old masonryarch was transformedin to a flat elliptical arch using RCC and steel. Long distance bridges with combination of bridge types also gained momentum during this century due to rapid strides in communication needs. The two world wars led into the development of cost-effective Cable stayed bridge design which is now widely accepted all over the world due to several advantages it imparts to the design. Pre-stressed concrete facilitated designing large span slender sections with elegant shapes. Navigational needs evolved movable bridge designs but towards the end of the century cable stayed bridge design settled several problems and provided a solution to eliminate movable bridges. Record lengths of spans were achieved in each category of bridge design. New materials like Aluminum and alloy metals were tried very successfully in bridge designs.

The story of bridge building has a long-standing history as old as human civilization. Each civilization and each society contributed in conceptualization of bridge with record span lengths. It’s amazing and heart stirring. Their philatelic recognition is a tribute to all those who conceived it, planned it, designed it and turned it in to a reality. Their bridges may or may not stay long but their stamps will last till the last philatelist survives.

BRIDGE as an Exhibit

The author’s journey began in 1985 with a very simple plan incorporating only types of bridges. Subsequently, with gain in philatelic knowledge and guidance from senior philatelist like Shri R. Binani, Late Shri H. C. Mehta, ShriDhananjay Desai, ShriLallan Singh the author revised his plan and evolved a new plan with title “Building Bridges – An Index of Human Civilization”. With this revised plan, the author participated at INDIPEX-2011 and earned “Large Silver”. During jury critic discussion and subsequent personal discussion by jury with each participant, the author was advised to change the title with very useful suggestions by learned juries. Accordingly, new title and new plan and new exhibit were evolved as per their guidance. The new title suggested was “The Story of Building Bridges – An Index of Human Civilization”. This title became more meaningful and gave lots of liberty in developing my revised exhibit. With new title, new plan and completely reorganized exhibit, the author participated at INPEX-2013 and earned “LV+SP” for his five frame exhibit.

In the meanwhile, M rPrathmesh Patel, another senior philatelist who attended Malmo Summit of Philatelists provided Malmo literature for study. It proved to be immensely beneficial to the author in conceptualizing thematic philately coupled with strong philatelic material. Once again, entire exhibit was reorganized while incorporating philatelic material based on my theme bridges. The result is “Gold” at INPEX-2017.

The lessons learnt were:

Ø  Exhibit Plan is most important and is the “HEART” of the exhibit. Devote maximum time in evolving a better and meaningful plan.

Ø  Select suitable titles for the development of your plan with subtitles.

Ø  Each title and subtitle must translate in to a lucid story for building an exhibit.

Ø  Each page has materials that closely related to title on that page i.e. title and material displayed must be correlated with each other.

Ø  Late Dr Satyendra Kumar Agrawal wrote few very good articles in Rainbow Stamp News regarding philatelic material in thematic philately. Keep it handy and read them again and again. Also read FIP guidelines for thematic philately along with American Philatelic Society guidelines. These are very helpful in building a better exhibit. (My mentor Lallan Singh advised me to first read FIP guidelines on Thematic Philately ten times and then prepare your plan) proved very helpful.

Ø  Personal interest and deep knowledge of the theme also helps in achieving confidence and immense personal pleasure. Always remember, philately is for our own enjoyment and relaxation. But when competing, one has to adhere to the stipulated rules.


There are no such things as limits to growth, because there are no limits on the human capacity for intelligence, imagination and wonder.
                                                           
-Ronald Reaga


Postal History of India from the Feudal Era to Independence, 1947

Part 1(Early days to Mughal Era)





This write up on Postal History of India will be in 12 series. It is a detailed version of the Postal History outline in the Rainbow stamp news November 2017 issue. The write up will highlight the broad aspects of the postal history of India without too much intricacies.




Introduction
In early days, the Medium of communication was through human speech or written on leaves likes palm leaves. Paper as a medium for communication is about 200 years old in India.
Before the arrival of East India Company, people lived in small, self contained communities and the need for distant communication was not there.
The needforTransmitting correspondence or distant communication  between the places was gradually developed with the evolution of civilisation through ages. In ancient times the kings, emperors, rulers, landlords protected their kingdom and its borders through intelligence services of specially trained police or military agencies and courier services to convey and obtain information between the capital and far flung-territories through :
·         Relay of runners andhorsemen(urgent message)
·         Messengers
·         Pigeons.

Meaning Dak and Post
·         The word “Dak” in  Bengali word means “Shout” or “Call” that the post runner or horseman with his stick and jingling bells or the galloping horseman used to shout from a distance to warn the men incharge, when nearing a changing place(“choultry in hindi) for exchange of mails, horses or men.
·         The word “Dak” in hindi means delivery or arrival  of communication through relay of horses and runners.The word Dakor Dawkgot associated with letters and became widely used with the emergence of postal system from 1800 onwards.
·         The English word “Post” was derived from the word, “Poistus”, meaning fixed or placed. The Spanish word “Correo” and “Portugese word “Corrieo” stand for the word “Courier Post”, the Latin word “Currere“ i.e. “Post-Haste” courier service which was connected with the name of the Roman Post.

History
·         The first recorded history of postal services in India was in 1206 A.D. when Ziauddin Barni described the horse and foot postal organization set up by the Pathan ruler, AlauddinKhilji. 
·         Highly developed postal services were established in the reign of Mohammad Bin-Tughlak, King of Delhi from 1325-1361, as described by the Arab historian Ibn Batuata.  There were two types of couriers. First, were the runners known as ‘El-Davah’.  The other were the horsemen, known as ‘El-Wolak’.Each relayed letters from one to another at regular intervals. The Horsemen travel a longer distance than the footrunner before handing over the letters over to the next.
·         Henry M. Elliott in his Memoirs of the Races of the North-Western Provinces mentions about postal system during SecunderLodhi’s regime, who ruled from 1488-1518, established small posts at many places within his kingdom. 
·         Babur developed the horse carrier system particularly from Agra to Kabul. 
·         Sher Shah Suri built the road from Sonargoan near Dacca, now in Bangladesh to bank of Indus in Sind for use by his couriers with 1700 stages/resthouses (sarais in hindi). This road is called the Great Trunk Road today.
·         The emperor Akbar made further improvements to the means of transport when camels were introduced, in addition to horses.
To be Contd… Part 2 in the next issue



In Memory of Dr Satyendra Agrawal….

 

In great philatelic memory of Dr Satyendra Kumar Agrawal, I re-published some of his best articles last year. He is always with us. His contribution to Thematic Philately will remain an asset for all stamp lovers.. Rainbow grew with his articles and has completed 10 years of publication. With this issue its 11th year starts.. I am introducing a new column of ‘Rose Philately’ in his memory from this issue. - Editor



Rose Philately

Roses of Luxembourg

The New Postocollants – Roses

5 December 2017
Since 1980 a group of rose lovers established the “Lëtzebuerger Rousefrënn” (Luxembourg Friends of Roses) to encourage the preservation of older varieties and the breeding of new ones. In 2014, a second association, the “Patrimoine Roses pour le Luxembourg” joined forces with them and their commitment to preserve the valuable cultural heritage of Luxembourg roses going back to the 19th century.
POST Philately was able to recruit Marianne Majerus, specialised in the depiction of gardens to illustrate the new postocollants. 


Lighter Side


Barrie philatelist researching retailers’ letters from Santa


By Jesse Robitaille



Barrie philatelist Dave Hanes is researching Canadian letters from Santa Claus for a forthcoming book slated to be published by the British North America Philatelic Society (BNAPS).
Hanes is compiling a listing of letters from Santa sent via iconic Canadian retailers T. Eaton Company (commonly known as Eaton’s) and the Robert Simpson Company (known as Simpsons since 1972).
“It’s history that a lot of people have seen, but they’ve never taken any great interest in it,” said Hanes, who has been a member of the Philatelic Specialists Society of Canada (PSSC)for about a decade. “I’m getting older now, and I’d like to see this stuff recorded for posterity.”
Eaton’s Toyland, which was the retailer’s fifth-floor Christmastime toy section, began writing letters from Santa as early as 1909. The earliest known letter – “so far,” added Hanes with cautious optimism – was written on Eaton’s letterhead.
“That’s the earliest I’ve been able to find, but I also have two that came out just after that, on eight-inch-by-13-inch sheets of paper, but they weren’t dated.”
By 1913, letters were being written on eight-inch-by-10-inch sheets of paper and sent out in envelopes.
“The envelopes have mostly been destroyed, but some have been found,” said Hanes.
A decade later, Eaton’s dropped the envelope and began folding the letters, to which they would affix a pre-cancelled stamp, which offers insight into the respective letter’s date.
“This practice continued into the 1960s, when Eaton’s stopped the letters.”
In 1928, the first letter from Santa appeared from Simpson’s Toyland. In 1930, a second issue by Simpson’s was released, this on a postcard from Santa. Nothing further has been reported from Simpson’s, Hanes said.

INSPIRED BY LATE DEALER


Hanes’ research into letters from Santa began several years ago, when late dealer Bill McCann, author of the Standard Catalogue of Canadian Booklet Stamps, showed him an early letter from Santa complete with the envelope.
“It was a 1918 letter from Santa, and it was a beautiful thing, so I more or less kept my eyes open for others,” said Hanes, who added he’s acquired “a few odds and ends” since then.

Hanes’ collection includes about 15 different letters from Santa, but he also has scans of other collections, including that of Tony Shaman, former editor of The Canadian Philatelist.
In 1982, Shaman published Letters from Santa – A Catalogue of Canada Post Santa H0H 0H0 Stationery, which offered a listing of contemporary letters from Santa, which are commonly referred to as the “Ho, ho, ho” letters in reference to the iconic postal code used by Santa to this day.

After referencing Shaman’s book, Hanes contacted the author to tell him he owned earlier letters from Santa sent in decades past. Hanes even offered to work with Shaman on compiling a listing of earlier letters; however, one area of concern for Shaman was dating the various items.

“You don’t know for sure, year by year, but you can go by era,” explained Hanes. “The various pre-cancelled stamps are the only way the letters can be dated. By checking the stamp, you can get a rough estimate of when these letters were used.”

ABOUT 51 LETTERS RECORDED


Including scans copied by the City of Toronto Archives, Hanes has about 51 letters from Santa recorded so far. Interestingly, only eight French-language letters have been reported with the majority being from the 1940s and ’50s.
Hanes said the earliest known French letter (provided by one of Shaman’s scans) was from 1930.

“I’m saying 1930 because it has a Arch stamp. That’s the earliest that I’ve been able to find, but then again there could’ve been more.”
“We’re quite short on the French ones, but I’ve gone through to three of the main clubs in Québec, and the editors of their publications, to request to publish this,” said Hanes, who added he’s also contacted The Royal Philatelic Society of Canada and its bimonthly journal The Canadian Philatelist; the Canadian Philatelic Society of Great Britain; the American Topical Association; and the aforementioned BNAPS, which has agreed to publish Hanes’ book.

He also has additional scans of Canadian letters from Jim Balog, of the U.S.-based Christmas Philatelic Club, which issues a quarterly publication known as The Yule Log.

New issues from other Countries

Kyrgyz Republic

24 November 2017 : Great Silk Road




The Great Silk Road is one of the most significant achievements in the history of world civilization. For many centuries, ramified networks of caravan roads crossed Europe and Asia from the Mediterranean to China and served in the era of antiquity and the Middle Ages as an important means of trade ties and dialogue between the cultures of the West and the East. The longest stretch of the Silk Road passed through the territory of Central Asia, including Kyrgyzstan. Along the Silk Road, rich cities, commercial settlements and caravanserais emerged and flourished. In the territory of Kyrgyzstan, these include: Djul, Suyab, Novokent, Balasagun, Borskoon, Tash-Rabat, Osh and Uzgen. 

The Great Silk Road was paved in the 2nd century BC. and existed until the 15th century AD. 

In September 2013, the People's Republic of China put forward the concept of the "New Silk Road" better known as “The Belt and Road Initiative”. This international strategy, including the projects "Economic Belt of the Silk Road" and "Sea Silk Road of the XXI Century", involves the creation, by 2030, of an extensive infrastructure network along the way from the western borders of China through the countries of Central Asia and Iran to Europe. 

On the sheet borders an ancient Chinese sailing ship, a compass, a loom, a fan, a red dragon are depicted.

Poland

16 December 2017 : Nine from Wujek Mine




6 December 2017 : Army of Anders - Trail of Hope




Slovenia
10 November 2017 Christmas

Iceland
2 November 2017 : Christmas

Acknowledgement
- Ananthapuri Stamp Bulletin December 2017 edited by Mohanchandran Nair
- Deccan Philatelist edited by Col Jayanta Dutta
- Judaica Thematic Society (UK) December  2017 Newsletter edited by Gary Goodman

Blogs & Websites

Philatelic Clubs & Societies 
Ananthapuri Philatelic Association, Thiruvanthapuram
Baroda Philatelic Society -  http://www.vadophil.org/
Chandigarh Philatelic Club
Deccan Philatelic Society – Pune, Maharashtra
Eastern India Philatelists’ Association - http://www.filacapsule.blogspot.com/   
India Study Circle -  http://www.indiastudycircle.org/
Indian Stamp Ghar - http://www.indianstampghar.com/
Indian Thematic Society, Ludhiana -   http://indianthematicstamps.webs.com/
Ludhiana Philatelic Club
Numismatic & Philatelic Association of Vellore Fort  http://numismaticphilavellore.site40.net/index.htm
Philatelic Congress of India - http://www.philateliccongressofindia.com/
Philatelic Society of Rajasthan, Jaipur
Philatelic Society of India , Mumbai : http://www.psi1897.com/
Rajkot Philatelic Society – Rajkot, Gujarat
Gujarat Philatelic Association - Ahmedabad
South India Philatelists Association -  http://www.sipa.org.in/
The Army Philatelic Society, Pune
RAINBOW STAMP CLUB

This is a blog of e-stamp Club www.rainbowstampclub.blogspot.com . The idea of this blog is to extend philatelic fraternity in all corners of the world. Readers may write about themselves with their collecting interests and share new ideas with other philatelists.  New Post on recent issues, news on stamp activities and Contribution by members are published every day on this blog. Readers may also express their views on any philatelic matter which will be published under Club News at Rainbow Stamp Cub Blog. Philatelic Clubs and Societies may also send brief write ups. Readers may send reports on new issues, special covers, cancellations & philatelic activities of their area for inclusion in this Blog. - Editor

Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletters
VADOPHIL, Editor - Prashant Pandya & Timir Shah  and published by Baroda Philatelic Society, Vadodara. Website -http://www.vadophil.org/

ITS Stamp News - Quarterly - Editor: Suraj Jaitly Publisher: Indian Thematic Society website - http://itsstampnews.blogspot.com/

Ananthpuri Stamp Bulletin - Monthly e -stamp bulletin of Anathapuri Philatelic Association, Thiruvanthapuram

Journal of the Army Philatelic Society : Editor – Col Jayanta Dutta

India Post – Quarterly Journal of the India Study Circle publishes original articles submitted by members of ISC.

 Deccan Philatelist from Deccan Philatelic Socity, Pune.  edited by Col Jayanta Dutta

Courtesy - News and Image Resource to this issue :   Indian Philately Digest ,  Stamps of India ;  WOPA , Suresh R.- Bangalore; Sreejesh Krishnan – Trivandrum.,Abhai Mishra, Dehradun, Canadian Stamp News

Address for communication :

Jeevan Jyoti,  c / o Mr. Ajay Srivastav Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun – 248002. India  
             
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Rainbow Stamp News is edited and published monthly by Jeevan Jyoti from Dehradun, ( Uttarakhand ) India for free circulation among philatelists.



Recent Awards



INPEX 2017, Mumbai - Large Silver

CHINA 2016 - Bronze

TAIPEI 2015 - Bronze

CG International Philatelic Promotion Award 2014, Germany - ( 4th Position)

INPEX 2013, Mumbai - Vermeil

SHARJAH 2012, Sharjah ( UAE ) - Silver Bronze

IPHLA 2012, Mainz - Germany : Bronze

I
NDIPEX 2011 - World Stamp Exhibition, New Delhi - Bronze

JOBURG 2010 - 26th Asian International Stamp Exhibition, Johannesburg - Silver Bronze

PORTUGAL 2010 - World Stamp Exhibition, Lisbon - Bronze

Hong Kong 2009 -23rd Asian International Stamp Exhibition, Hong Kong - Silver Bronze

About Me

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Participated in different philatelic exhibitions Wrote for philately column in The Pioneer and worked as sub-editor for U-Phil Times published from United Philatelists, Kanpur.Did Schooling from Kanpur Vidya Mandir and Post Graduation in Botany from A.N.D. College Kanpur.

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